Raphael Kalinowski

Raphael Kalinowski

Infobox Saint
name=Saint Raphael Kalinowski of St. Joseph
birth_date=birth date|1835|9|1|df=y
death_date=death date and age|1907|11|15|1835|9|1|df=y
feast_day=19 November
venerated_in=Roman Catholic Church

caption=Photograph of Saint Raphael of St. Joseph taken on 30 March 1897
birth_place=Vilnius, Lithuania
death_place=Wadowice, Poland
beatified_place=Kraków, Poland
canonized_date=17 November 1991
canonized_place=St. Peter's Basilica, Rome

Saint Raphael Kalinowski, O.C.D. ( _pl. Rafał Kalinowski, _lt. Rapolas Kalinauskas) (September 1, 1835 – November 15, 1907) was a Polish Discalced Carmelite friar born as Józef Kalinowski inside the Russian partition of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the city of Vilnius (Pl: "Wilno"; Ru: "Вильнюс"), now the capital of the Republic of Lithuania. He was a teacher, engineer, prisoner of war, royal tutor, and priest, who founded many monasteries around Poland after the suppression by the Russians. He was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 1991, the first man to be so recognized in the order of the Discalced Carmelites, since Saint John of the Cross.


He was born as Joseph (Józef) to a noble "szlachta" family in the city of Vilna (Wilno). At the time he was born, the area was known as a Russian partition, though it had formerly been part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was the second son of Andrew Kalinowski, an assistant superintendent professor of mathematics at the local Institute for Nobles ("Instytut Szlachecki"). His mother, Josephine Połońska, died a few months after he was born, leaving him and his older brother Victor without a mother. His father then married Josephine's sister (a practice that was not uncommon in that time), Sophie Połońska, and had three more children: Charles, Emily, and Gabriel. But then Sophie died in 1845, so Andrew married again, this time to the 17-year-old Sophie Puttkamer, daughter of Maryła Wereszczak (famous at the time for being written about by Adam Mickiewicz), who became mother to all of Andrew's existing children, as well as having four more of her own: Mary, Alexander, Monica, and George.

From the age of 8, Kalinowski attended the Institute for Nobles at Vilna, and graduated with honors in 1850.Sokol, p. 173] He next attended the School of Agriculture ("Instytut Agronomiczny") at Hory-Horki, near Orsha.

Military career

Choice of colleges was strictly limited by the Russians, so in 1853 he enlisted in the Russian Army and entered the Nicholayev Engineering Academy ("Mikołajewska Szkoła Inżynierii"). He was promoted to Second Lieutenant in 1856. In 1857 he worked as an associate professor of mathematics, and from 1858-1860 he worked as an engineer who helped design the Odessa/Kiev/Kursk portion of the Trans-Siberian railway.

In 1862 he was promoted to Captain, but he resigned from the Russian Army in 1863 and became Minister of War during the Polish insurrection known as the January Uprising. On 24 March 1864 he was arrested and condemned to death by firing squad, but his family intervened, and the sentence was changed to 10 years in a Siberian labor camp. He was forced to trek overland to the salt mines of Usole, near Irkutsk, Siberia, a journey which took nine months.

Three years after arriving in Usole he was allowed to move to Irkutsk. From 1871-1872 he did meteorological research for the Siberian section of the Russian Geographical Company. He also participated in Benedict Dybowski's research expedition to Kultuk at Baikal.

Royal tutor

He returned to Warsaw in 1874, and became a tutor to 16-year-old Prince August Czartoryski. August was diagnosed with tuberculosis in 1876, and Kalinowski accompanied him to various health destinations in France, Switzerland, Italy, and Poland. Kalinowski was a major influence on the young man (known as "Gucio"), who later joined the priesthood himself, and was also beatified by Pope John Paul II in 2004.

Carmelite priest

In 1877 Kalinowski joined the Carmel of Linz, and took the name "Brother Raphael of St. Joseph." The name "of St. Joseph" had nothing to do with his birthname -- it was common for many Carmelites to list their name as "of St. Joseph", after the "Convent of St. Joseph" founded by Teresa of Avila, co-founder of the Discalced Carmelite Order.

Kalinowski was ordained as priest at Czerna in 1882 by Bishop Albin Dunajewski, and in 1883 became Prior of the convent at Czerna.

He founded multiple Catholic organizations around Poland and the Ukraine, most prominent of which was a monastery in Wadowice, Poland, where he was also Prior. He founded a Carmelite Sisters convent in Przemyśl in 1884, and Lvov in 1888.

From 1892-1907 he worked to document the life and work of Mother Theresa Marchocka, a 17th century Discalced Carmelite, to assist with her beatification.

He died in Wadowice of tuberculosis in 1907. [Sokol, p. 174] Fourteen years later, Karol Wojtyła, later known as Pope John Paul II, was born in the same town.

He was a noted spiritual director of both Roman Catholic and Russian Orthodox faithful. [ [http://www.carmelite.com/saints/raphael.shtml Carmelite.com > Our saints > St. Raphael Kalinowski ] at www.carmelite.com]


Kalinowski's remains were originally kept in the convent cemetery, but this proved unmanageable because of the large number of pilgrims who came visiting. So many of them took handfuls of dirt from the grave, that the nuns had to keep replacing the earth and plants at the cemetery. His body was later moved to a tomb, but the pilgrims went there instead, often scratching with their hands at the plaster, just to have some relic to keep with them. [ [http://www.elonka.com/family/saint/raphael.html Elonka's Family: Pics and Info about Saint Raphael Kalinowski ] ] His remains were then moved to a chapel in Czerna, where they are currently. [ [http://www.karmel.pl/kalinowski/miejsca/czerna.html Witryna Krakowskiej Prowincji Karmelitów Bosych ] at www.karmel.pl]

Father Raphael was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1983 in Kraków, in front of a crowd of over two million people. On November 17, 1991, he was canonized when, in St. Peter's Basilica, Pope John Paul declared his boyhood hero a Saint. [ [http://www.vatican.va/news_services/liturgy/saints/ns_lit_doc_19911117_kalinowski_en.html The Vatican's 1991 press release about his canonization] ] Raphael was the first friar to have been canonized in the Order of the Discalced Carmelites, since co-founder Saint John of the Cross (1542-1591).

His feast day is November 19.

Literary works

*Carmelite Chronicles of the monasteries and convents of Vilnius, Warsaw, Leopolis, and Kraków
*Translated into Polish the autobiography of St. Therese of Lisieux, "The Story of a Soul"
*Wrote biography of Hermann Cohen (a famous Jewish pianist, who had converted to the Carmelite Order and become "Father Augustine Mary of the Blessed Sacrament")
*Kalinowski, Rafal, "Czesc Matki Bozej w Karmelu Polskim", in "Ksiega Pamiatkowa Marianska", Lwów-Warszawa 1905, vol. 1, part II, pp 403-421
*Kalinowski, J. "Wspomnienia 1805-1887" (Memoirs 1805-1887), ed. R. Bender, Lublin 1965
*Kalinowski, Jozef, "Listy" (Letters), ed. Czeslaus Gil, vol. I, Lublin 1978, vol II, Kraków 1986-1987
*Kalinowski, Rafal, "Swietymi badzcie. Konferencje i teksty ascetyczne", ed. Czeslaus Gil, Kraków 1987

See also

*Eastern Christianity
*Byzantine Discalced Carmelites
*Carmelite Rule of St. Albert
*Book of the First Monks
*Constitutions of the Carmelite Order
*Jan Tyranowski
*List of Polish saints



* [http://www.secular-carmelite.org/OCDS%20Lessons/Lesson%2010.htm Biography by Eileen Ahern, OCDS]
* [http://www.elonka.com/family/saint/raphael.html Elonka's family: Pics and info about Saint Raphael] - a biographical page by his great-great-grandniece, with references to several published biographies
* [http://www.karmel.pl/kalinowski/index.html Polish-language page about Saint Raphael] with many pictures
* [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/1983/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_19830622_beatificazione-kalinowski-chmielowski_it.html Beatification of Father Raphael Kalinowski and Brother Albert Chmielowski in Krakow (June 22, 1983)]
* Praskiewicz, Szczepan, "Saint Raphael Kalinowski: an Introduction to His Life and Spirituality", 1998, ICS Publications, ISBN 0935216537
* "Blessed Raphael Kalinowski of Saint Joseph, His Life in Pictures", 1983, Rome, Postulation General
* Gil, Czeslaus, OCD, "Raphael Kalinowski"
* Monk Matthew, "Saint from the Salt Mines", 1986, Mid-Suffolk Printing Company, distributed by Carmelite Book Service, Oxford
* "Miracle Clears Way for Sainthood Cause." "The Catholic Sun", July 19, 1990

External links

* [http://www.carmelite-seremban.org/Spirituality/saint42.html St Rafael Kalinowski of St. Joseph OCD, November 19 - Memorial]
* [http://www.carmelite-seremban.org/Spirituality/carmelite_calendar.html Discalced Carmelite Calendar and Saints]
* [http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintr37.htm Raphael Kalinowski]
* [http://www.karmel.at/ics/edith/stein_9.html Carmelite Vocation]
* [http://www.carmelite.com/saints/john/works/index.shtml St. John of the Cross - Collected Works]
* [http://www.carmelite.com/saints/john/works/p_10.htm Poetry of John of the Cross]

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