Panoan languages

Panoan languages

Infobox Language family
region=southwestern Amazon

Panoan (also Pánoan, Panoano, Panoana, Páno) is a family of languages spoken in Peru, western Brazil, and Bolivia. It is a sub-family of the larger Pano-Tacanan family.

Family division

Panoan consists of 27 languages:

: A. Eastern Panoan:: 1. Kaxararí (a.k.a. Kashararí): B. Culino:: 2. Kulino (a.k.a. Culino) "(†)": C. "Mainline" branch:: i. Cashibo group (a.k.a. Western Panoan)::: 3. Nocamán (a.k.a. Nokamán, Nocomán) "(†)"::: 4. Cashibo (a.k.a. Cacataibo, Kashibo, Cashibo-Cacataibo, Caxibo, Cacibo, Cachibo, Cahivo, Managua, Hagueti):: ii. Pano group::: 5. Pánobo (a.k.a. Panobo, Manoa, Pelado) "(†)"::: 6. Huariapano (a.k.a. Pano, Waripano, Pana, Pelado) "(†)":: iii. Shipibo group::: 7. Shipibo (a.k.a. Shipibo-Conibo, Shipibo-Konibo)::: 8. Capanahua (a.k.a. Kapanawa)::: 9. Marubo (a.k.a. Marobo, Marúbo, Maruba, Marova, Kaniuá)::: 10. Waninnawa (a.k.a. Panoan Katukína, Catuquina, Kamanawa, Kamannaua, Katukina do Juruá, Katukina Pano)::: 11. Remo (a.k.a. Sakuya, Kukini, Rheno) "(†)"::: 12. Tuxinawa (a.k.a. Tushinawa, Tuxináwa, Tuchinaua) "(†)":: iv. Tri-State group (a.k.a. Amawak-Jaminawa, Loos Amawaka-Jaminawa)::: 13. Amahuaca (a.k.a. Amawaka, Amaguaco, Ameuhaque, Ipitineri, Sayaco, Amawáka, Amawaca, Amenguaca, Sayacu)::: 14. Isconahua (a.k.a. Iscobakebo, Iskonawa, Iscobaquebu)::: 15. Cashinahua (a.k.a. Kashinawa, Kaxinawa, Tuxinawa, Kaxinawá, Kaxynawa, Caxinawa, Caxinawá, Cashinahuá, Kaxinauá)::: 16. Sharanawa (a.k.a. Marinahua, Mastanahua, Parquenahua, Sharanahua, Acre Arara, Marináwa, Yora, Yura, Yoranahua, Manu Park Panoan, Nahua)::: 17. Yaminahua (a.k.a. Yaminawa, Jaminawá, Yuminahua, Yamanawa, Jaminawa)::: 18. Atsahuaca (a.k.a. Yamiaca, Atsawaka-Yamiaka) "(†)"::: 19. Parannawa "(†)"::: 20. Puinaua (a.k.a. Poyanawa, Poyanáwa, Poianáua, Puinahua)::: 21. Xipinahua (a.k.a. Shipinawa, Xipináwa, Shipinahua) "(†)": D. Bolivian branch (a.k.a. Southern Panoan):: 22. Karipuna language:: 23. Pacahuara language (a.k.a. Pacaguara, Pakaguara, Pacawara):: 24. Chácobo language (a.k.a. Chákobo):: E. Shaninawa:: 25. Shaninawa (a.k.a. Xaninaua): F. Sensi:: 26. Sensi (a.k.a. Senti, Tenti, Mananahua) "(†)": G. Northern Panoan (a.k.a. Mayoruna):: 27. Mayoruna-Matsés (a.k.a. Matsés, Mayoruna, Matse, Matís, Matis, Majoruna, Maxuruna, Majuruna, Mayiruna, Maxirona, Magirona, Mayuzuna)

Kulino, Nocamán, Pánobo, Huariapano, Remo, Tuxinawa, Atsahuaca, Parannawa, Xipinahua, and Sensi have all become extinct.

Gordon (2005) lists Yora/Parquenahua as a separate while other sources include it as a regional variety of Sharanawa.

Genetic relations

The Panoan family is related to the Tacanan family, which together comprise the Pano-Tacanan family. Some other languages reported in Campbell (1997: 190) have been associated with the Panoan family, but their relationship to Panoan is still undetermined:

* Panavarro
* Purus
* Arazaire
* Cujareno (in Peru)
* Katukina Pano (=Yawanawa ?) (in Brazil)
* Maya (in Brazil)
* Mayo (in Peru ?)
* Morunahua (a.k.a. Morunawa) (in Peru)
* Nukuini (a.k.a. Nuquini) (in Brazil)
* Pisabo (a.k.a. Pisagua, Pisahua) (in Peru)
* Uru-eu (in Brazil)

For more information see also Shell (1975: 14), Miglizza & Campbell (1988: 189-190), Rodrigues (1986: 77-81).

Gordon (2005) lists "Waninnawa" as an alternate name for Panoan Katukína, presumably the same language as Campbell's Katukina Pano. Nukuini is listed as an unclassified language within a South-Central Panoan branch. Pisabo is listed with 513 speakers (and not extinct) and is grouped with Mayoruna-Matsés on a "Northern Panoan" branch. Gordon (2005) also includes the following language as distinct from Katukina Pano/Panoan Katukína:

* Yawanawa (a.k.a. Iauanauá, Jawanaua, Yahuanahua) (in Brazil)

Gordon (2005) includes Shinabo as an extinct language that probably did not exist, the people may have been a sub-group of the Chácobo.

ee also

* Pano-Tacanan languages

External links

* Ethnologue: [ Panoan]
* Proel: [ Familia Panoana]


* Campbell, Lyle. (1997). "American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America". New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
* Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). "Ethnologue: Languages of the world" (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. (Online version:
* Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), "Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages" (pp. 13-67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
* Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), "Atlas of the world's languages" (pp. 46-76). London: Routledge.
* Migliazza, Ernest C.; & Campbell, Lyle. (1988). "Panorama general de las lenguas indígenas en América". Historia general de América (Vol. 10). Caracas: Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia.
* Shell, Olive A. (1975). "Las lenguas pano y su reconstrucción". Serie lingüística Peruana (No. 12). Yarinacocha, Peru: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano.
* Rodrigues, Aryon. (1986). "Linguas brasileiras: Para o conhecimento das linguas indígenas". São Paulo: Edições Loyola.

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