Lesser Scaup

Lesser Scaup

Taxobox
name = Lesser Scaup



image_width = 200px
image_caption = Adult drake (male)
status = LC
status_system = iucn3.1
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
ordo = Anseriformes
familia = Anatidae
genus = "Aythya"
species = "A. affinis"
binomial = "Aythya affinis"
binomial_authority = (Eyton, 1838)

The Lesser Scaup ("Aythya affinis") is a small North American diving duck.

Description

Adults are 38–45 cm long, with a blue bill and yellow eyes. Adult males have a dark head with a purple sheen, a black breast, a light gray back, a black tail and white underparts. Adult females have a white band at the base of the bill and a brown head and body. They are smaller than the Greater Scaup, but may be an offshoot thereof, or they may both be descendants from a common ancestor.

There can be difficulty in distinguishing the Greater and Lesser Scaup. The differently colored sheen on the head is unreliable because light conditions vary, and these birds are often far from the water's edge.

The Lesser Scaup is best identified by its much smaller size, different head shape with a peaked hind crown, and a white wing bar that is visible only on the secondaries. (It extends onto the primaries in Greater.) The drake also shows vermiculations on the back. In North America, a large scaup flock will often have both species present.

Range and ecology

Their breeding habitat is marsh ponds in Alaska, western Canada, and westen Montana. Lesser Scaup migrate in flocks and winter in lakes, rivers and sheltered coastal waters along the Pacific coast from southern North America to northern South America. They are more likely to be found on fresh water than Greater Scaup. These birds move south when the young are fledged and return in early spring. In Central America, flocks are present from July on, but only really numerous after September. They move north again in April and May [Herrera "et al." (2006)] .

They are a rare but apparently increasing vagrant to western Europe, where the identification also needs to exclude similar-looking hybrids. The first British record was a first-winter male at Chasewater, Staffordshire in 1987 [Evans (1987)] but by 2006, over 60 had been recorded Fact|date=June 2007.

s and so accumulate environmental contaminants rapidly. [ [http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/birds/divduck/index.htm] Custer, Christine M., and Thomas W. Custer. 1996. "Food habits of diving ducks in the Great Lakes after the zebra mussel invasion." "J. Field Ornithology", 67(1):86-99. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. (Version 31JAN2002)]

They nest late in a sheltered location on the ground near water. Their chicks usually do not hatch until July, and they are one of the later types of waterfowl to migrate south.

Although the Lesser Scaup has the largest population of any species of diving duck in North America, their population has been steadily declining since 1985, and reached an all-time low in 2005. Pollution is one cited cause of the decline, although the decline is poorly understood. [ [http://www.ducks.org/news/1093/DuckoftheMonthLesser.html Duck of the Month - Lesser Scaup ] ] [ [http://www.ducks.org/hunting/waterfowlgallery/11/index.html Lesser scaup Facts, Figures, Description and Photo ] ]

Footnotes

References

*IUCN2006|assessors=aut|BirdLife International|year=2004|id=47223|title=Aythya affinis|downloaded=11 May 2006 Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern.
* (1987): Britain's first Lesser Scaup. "Twitching" 1(3): 65-66. [http://www.westmidlandbirdclub.com/biblio/twitching/lesserscaup.htm HTML fulltext]
* (1983): "The Audubon Society master guide to birding". Alfred A. Knopf, New York. ISBN 0517032880
* (2006): Nuevos registros para la avifauna de El Salvador. ["New records for the avifauna of El Salvador"] . "Boletín de la Sociedad Antioqueña de Ornitología" 16(2): 1-19. [Spanish with English abstract] [http://www.sao.org.co/publicaciones/boletinsao/01-Herrera.etal.RecordsSalvador.pdf PDF fulltext]
* (1987): "Wildfowl : an identification guide to the ducks, geese and swans of the world". Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7470-2201-1
* (1999): "Collins bird guide". Harper & Collins, London. ISBN 0-00-219728-6

External links

* [http://www.birds.cornell.edu/AllAboutBirds/BirdGuide/Lesser_Scaup.html Lesser Scaup: Cornell Lab of Ornithology]
* [http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/id/framlst/i1490id.html Lesser Scaup: USGS Patuxent Bird Identification Infocenter]
* [http://www.blevinsphoto.com/lesserscaup.htm An article and photograph]
* [http://www.nature.org/animals/birds/animals/scaup.html The Nature Conservancy's] Species profile for the lesser scaup
* [http://www.sdakotabirds.com/species/lesser_scaup_info.htm Lesser Scaup Information and Photos: South Dakota Birds and Birding]


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