- Koobi Fora
Koobi Fora refers primarily to a region around Koobi Fora Ridge, located on the eastern shore of
Lake Turkanain the territory of the nomadic Gabbratribe. According to the National Museums of Kenya, the name comes from the Gabbra language::"In the language of the Gabbra people who live near the site, the term Koobi Fora means a place of the commiphora and the source of myrrh...." [Refer to the [http://www.museums.or.ke/backgrounds/koobi.html National Museums of Kenya] site. There are a few other etymologies.]
The ridge itself is an outcrop of mainly Pliocene/Pleistocene sediments. It is comprised of claystones, siltstones, and sandstones that preserve numerous fossils of terrestrial mammals, including early
homininspecies. Presently, the ridge is being eroded into a badlandsterrain by a series of ephemeral rivers that drain into the northeast portion of modern Lake Turkana. In 1968 Richard Leakeyestablished the Koobi Fora Base Camp on a large sandspit projecting into the lake near the ridge, which he called the Koobi Fora Spit.
A subsequent survey and numerous excavations at multiple sites established the region as a source of
homininfossils shedding light on the evolution of man over the previous 4.2 million years. Far exceeding the number of humanoid fossils are the non-humanoid fossils giving a detailed look at the faunaand floraas far back as the Miocene.
Consequently the government of
Kenyain 1973 reserved the region as Sibiloi National Park, establishing a headquarters for the National Museums of Kenyaon Koobi Fora Spit. The reserve is well-maintained and is well-guarded by friendly but armed park police. Protection of sites and especially of wildlife are of prime concern. Exploration and excavation continue under the auspices of the Koobi Fora Research Project (KFRP), which collaborates with a number of interested universities and individuals across the world. [For more information, refer to the [http://www.kfrp.com/ KFRP Journal] site currently being maintained by Louise Leakey. One notable collaboration is the [http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~kffs/HTML/KoobiForaFS14_2_06.pdf Koobi Fora Field School] conducted yearly by Rutgers University, which combines education and research.]
Formerly the term, Koobi Fora, has been used to mean one or two initial sites, or the sand spit. Today it can mean any or all points in Sibiloi National Park. The term East Turkana also has come into use with the larger meaning. [A nice [http://jwest.web.wesleyan.edu/research/kfmap.html map] can be found at at the Wesleyan site.]
ome sites, bones and stones
The simple hierarchy of scientific places for Koobi Fora is the following: Koobi Fora is the region; the region is divided into fossil collecting areas (e.g., Area 102, 103, 140, etc.); within fossil collection areas there are archaeological sites (e.g., FxJj 1, FxJj 10, etc.) and hominid paleontological localities, which are usually named after the National Museum of Kenya accession number assigned to the important bones found. For example, in Area 131 hominid skull KNM-ER 1470 was found. The fossils found here, including all the non-human ones, are assigned to the 1470 locality.
Locating and referencing the hundreds of sites in the Koobi Fora region has been an ongoing process. The entire reservation was divided into somewhat over 100 numbered areas. When there were only a relatively few sites it sufficed to locate them with pinpricks on aerial photos and reference them by stating the area. The archaeologists, such as
Glynn Isaac, developed a coordinate system. A site acquired a tag consisting of a 4-letter coordinate identifier, such as FxJj, which refers to a small section at the intersection of x and j within a larger section at the intersection of F and J, followed by the number of the site: FxJj 82 refers to the 82nd site within FxJj. [The [http://www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/fa/isaac1.htm#series papers of Glynn Isaacs] show his extensive reliance on this system, which is still in use today.] In the year 2000 the KFRP went over to a GPSsystem and has been trying to correlate the pinpricks to its data. [This effort is described by Nina Jablonski in [http://www.kfrp.com/dispatches_2004/gis_jablonski/gis_jablonski.htm Putting Technology to Work at Koobi Fora] , a special report of the KFRP journal for January 20, 2007.]
Fossils are labeled with a KNM (Kenya National Museums) accession number, assigned on no other basis than the order in which it was assigned. The number may be preceded in scholarly literature by KNM, KNM ET or KNM ER, where ET and ER stand for East Turkana and East Rudolf, respectively, or just plain ER. Some notable areas are as follows.
*Area 105 The first archaeological site, i.e., FxJj 1, was found in Area 105. It is knicknamed the KBS site for Kay Behrensmeyer Site, after the researcher who first found stone tools there. This site is also the place where the first tuff was found, i.e., the KBS Tuff.
*Area 131It is known as the location of skull 1470, discovered by
Bernard Ngeneoin 1972, reconstructed by Meave Leakey, later reconstructed and named Homo habilisby Richard Leakey, as possibly the first of the genus Homo, and finally Homo rudolfensis. Richard Leakey found it 45 m below the 1.89 my KBS tuff; thus, it is older than that date, but is conventionally dated to it. [Establishing the date and the species has been a long and often painful process. Accordingly Leakey and Lewin ("People of the Lake", Chapter 2) refer to 1470 as "... the famous - some say infamous - skull ...."]
Searching for and finding fossils in such a large area is another difficult problem. One solution has been to organize all persons present into a gang to sweep a designated area. Richard Leakey devised a method that produced better results: he organized and trained a search team of Kenyans of non-European descent, which became known as "the hominid gang", under the leadership of
Kamoya Kimeu. They have discovered the majority of the fossil Hominins, which currently amount to over 200.
Koobi Fora is perhaps best known for its specimens of the
genusHomo, but Australopithecusalso has been found. The following speciesare represented: [Much of the literature on the subject since 1991 refers to some pseudo-taxa created by Wood: Homo sp. indet. is "Homo, species indeterminate"; Homo gen. et spec. indet. is "Homo, genus and species indeterminate"; Homo aff. H. erectus is "Homo with affinities to Homo erectus"; H. erectus sensu stricto is "Homo erectus in the strict sense." The subject has moved on since Wood; for example, "Hominids" are now "Hominins." For a review of the book in some detail, see the " [http://www.anthro.ucdavis.edu/faculty/mchenry/AJPA89.pdf Book Reviews] " section of the "American Journal of Physical Anthropology" S9:499-504 (1992).]
Australopithecus and Homo seem to have coexisted in the region for about one million years. One possible explanation is different food sources. ["People of the Lake" Chapter 5.] Eventually Australopithecus became exinct and Homo went on to generate later species.
Large quantities of stone tools have been found at Koobi Fora both on the surface and in caches, which have dates of their own, but are seldom in association with hominins. No other candidates for their manufacture have been found, however. The tools are
Olduwanand Acheulean. The Koobi Fora community has devised the following teminology [The tools and classifications are well described in a number of pages at [http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/dept/d10/asb/anthro2003/origins/koobi/koobi5.html KOOBI FORA ARCHAEOLOGY] , which is being maintained at the Maricopa Community Colleges site.] to describe three local industries:
The initial archaeology, experimental archaeology, and scientific analysis of the tools were performed by J. W. K. Harris, Nicholas Toth and Glynn Isaac. Harris and Braun report their line of investigation: [" [http://www.raco.cat/index.php/TreballsArqueologia/article/viewFile/29347/29186 Technological Developments in the Oldowan of Koobi Fora: Innovative Techniques of Artifact Analysis] ", David R. Braun, Jack W.K. Harris, in "TREBALLS D’ARQUEOLOGIA", 9, Centre d’Estudis del Patrimoni Arqueològicde la Prehistòria, Autonomous University of Barcelona. The summary below is based on it and the quoted phrases come from it.] :"Hominid technology represents a conduit between the hominid and access to resources such as meat and marrow."According to the analysis, the conduit became more efficient between KBS and Karari Olduwan; that is, hominins obtained more of a return for a given output of energy and could do more. The chief technological development was the edge. The KBS utilized ".977 cm of edge per gram of mass", but the Karari utilized "2.4 cm of edge", etc., an advantage obtained through a "core reduction strategy"; that is, more and thinner flakes per mass of cores. This "flake production model" made possible a better "flake utility model." More and better flakes meant better utilization of carcasses and therefore a need for fewer carcasses, less hunting, etc. Moreover, the increased number of flakes available made ranging farther from the source of the stone possible and endowed more staying power to the hunt.
Koobi Fora encompasses a small depocenter, underlain by
Pliocene basalts and filled with nearly 600 meters of Pliocene- Pleistocene sediments, dating from about four-million to one-million years ago. These sediments are attributed to the Koobi Fora Formation, which consists of eight members that are delimited by water-lain tuffs (volcanic ash). [The system is as follows. One "member" is all the layers between two tuffs, or layers of volcanic ash. The member is named from the bottom tuff, considered to begin it. The tuffs are dated. Obviously, a fossil or artifact is dated by the member in which it was found. A complete presentation of the members and their names with dates and a diagram can be found at [http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/dept/d10/asb/anthro2003/origins/koobi/koobi3.html STRATIGRAPHY OF KOOBI FORA] and therefore that information is not repeated here.]
Most early human fossils and archaeological remains derive from the upper portion of the Burgi Member, the KBS Member, and the Okote Member. The members reflect changing environments in the Turkana Basin, from lake and delta ones during Burgi Member times to rivers and floodplains in Okote Member times.
The stratigraphy of the Koobi Fora Formation is one of the best studied and calibrated in East Africa. Controversial dating of the KBS Tuff during the 1970's helped to spearhead the development of modern potassium/argon and argon/argon geological dating methods. In addition, the unique fusion between
geochronologyand mammal evolutionary studies has made the Koobi Fora Formation a standard for interpreting biochronology, environmental change, and ecologyfor all of Pliocene-Pleistocene Africa.
*Richard E. Leakey and Roger Lewin, "People of the Lake", Copyright 1978, various editions.
*Delta Willis, "The Hominid Gang", Copyright 1989, various editions such as the Viking, ISBN 0-670-82808-4.
*Bernard Wood, "Koobi Fora Research Project Volume 4: Hominid Cranial Remains", Oxford University Press. 1991, ISBN 0-19-857502-5.
List of fossil sites"(with link directory)"
* [http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~kffs/ Koobi Fora Field School]
* [http://www.kfrp.com Koobi Fora Research Project]
* [http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/dept/d10/asb/anthro2003/origins/koobi/koobi1.html The Jade Sea and a treasure-trove of fossils]
* [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v258/n5534/abs/258395a0.html Age of KBS Tuff in Koobi Fora Formation, East Rudolf, Kenya] , article by Curtis, Drake, Cerling & Hampel in "Nature" 258, 395 - 398 (04 December 1975). Abstract and bibliography are for free.
* [http://www.lib.utah.edu/epubs/undergrad/vol6/wynn.html PALEOCLIMATIC IMPLICATIONS OF VERTISOLS WITHIN THE KOOBI FORA FORMATION, TURKANA BASIN, NORTHERN KENYA] , JONATHAN G. WYNN and CRAIG S. FEIBEL, in the University of Utah's Journal of Undergraduate Research, Copyright 1995, Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program, University of Utah Vol. 6, No. 1 pp. 32-42.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=16815529 Revised stratigraphy of Area 123, Koobi Fora, Kenya, and new age estimates of its fossil mammals, including hominins] , Gathogo PN, Brown FH., "Journal of Human Evolution", 2006 Nov;51(5):471-9. Epub 2006 Jun 3.
*"Into the Fossil Valley" and "Koobi Fora: Part II" Discovery Channel videos made available for public viewing at the [http://www.exn.ca/dailyplanet/view.asp?date=9/3/2001 dailyplanet] site.
*" [http://www.in-cites.com/scientists/DrIanMcDougall.html An interview with: Dr. Ian McDougall] ", in-cites, July 2004.
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