R is the eighteenth letter of the modern
Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled ar (IPAEng|ɑr; pronounced IPA| [ɑː] or IPA| [ɑɹ] ). ["R" " Oxford English Dictionary," 2nd edition (1989); "ar," op. cit.]
The original Semitic letter was probably inspired by an
Egyptian hieroglyphfor "head", pronounced "t-p" in Egyptian, but it was used for IPA|/r/ by Semites because in their language, the word for "head" was Rêš(also the name of the letter). It developed into Greek Ρ polytonic|ῥῶ (Rhô) and Latin R. It is likely that some Etruscan and Western Greek forms of the letter added the extra stroke to distinguish it from a later form of the letter P.
The minuscule (lower-case) form of r developed through several variations on the capital form. In handwriting it was common not to close the bottom of the loop but continue into the leg, saving an extra pen stroke. The loop-leg stroke shortened into the simple arc used today.
r rotunda, kept the loop-leg stroke but dropped the vertical stroke. It fell out of use around the 18th century.
Various phonetic realizations of R
rhotic consonant, r-colored vowel, and guttural Rfor discussion of the family of 'r' sounds.
In the , IPA| [r] represents the
alveolar trillsound. Other languages may use the letter r in their alphabets (or Latin transliterations schemes) to represent rhotic consonants different from the alveolar trill. In Haitian Creole, it is represents a sound so weak that it is often written interchangeably with "w", eg. "Kweyol" for "Kreyol". This sound can also change in a language perceptibly over time; the alveolar trill of British English is more characteristic of 19th / early 20th century speech and is associated with older speakers, while younger Britons have been known for a much weaker 'r' since at least the 1980sFact|date=June 2008.
Codes for computing
Unicodethe capital R is codepoint U+0052 and the lower caser is U+0072.
ASCIIcode for capital R is 82 and for lowercase r is 114; or in binary 01010010 and 01110010, correspondingly.
EBCDICcode for capital R is 217 and for lowercase r is 153.
numeric character references in HTMLand XMLare "&#82;" and "&#114;" for upper and lower case respectively.
The letter R is sometimes referred to as the dog's letter. This phrase has Latin origins, the Latin R was trilled so it sounds like a snarling dog. A good example of a trilling R is the Spanish word for dog: perro. [ [http://wordsmith.org/words/dogs_letter.html A.Word.A.Day - dog's letter ] ] In "Romeo and Juliet", Shakespeare makes reference to R being the dog's letter in Act 2 Scene 4, when Juliet's nurse calls the letter R "The dog's name".
af:R als:R ar:R arc:R ast:R az:R bs:R ca:R cs:R co:R cy:R da:R de:R et:R el:R es:R eo:R eu:R fa:R fur:R gan:R gd:R gl:R ko:R hr:R ilo:R is:R it:R he:R ka:R kw:R sw:R ht:R la:R lv:R lt:R hu:R ms:R mzn:R nah:R ja:R no:R nn:R nrm:R pl:R pt:R ro:R qu:R se:R scn:R simple:R sl:R fi:R sv:R tl:R th:R vi:R vo:R yo:R zh-yue:R bat-smg:R zh:R
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.