Knowledge is defined (Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information or (iii) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. Philosophical debates in general start with Plato's formulation of knowledge as "justified true belief". There is however no single agreed definition of knowledge presently, nor any prospect of one, and there remain numerous competing theories.

Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, learning, communication, association and reasoning. The term "knowledge" is also used to mean the confident understanding of a subject with the ability to use it for a specific purpose if appropriate.

Defining knowledge (philosophy)

Robert Reid, "Knowledge" (1896). Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C.] )

In Gnosticism divine knowledge or gnosis is hoped to be attained and escape from the demiurge's physical world. And in Thelema knowledge and conversation with one's Holy Guardian Angel is the purpose of life, which is similar to Gnosis or enlightenment in other mystery religions.

ee also

* Analytic proposition/Synthetic proposition
* A priori/A posteriori
* Belief
* Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities
* Epistemic logic
* Epistemology
* Figurative system of human knowledge
* Institutional knowledge
* Intelligence
* Intuition as an unconscious form of knowledge.
* Knowledge capture
* Knowledge discovery
* Knowledge engineering
* Knowledge management
* Knowledge networking
* Knowledge relativity
* Knowledge representation
* Knowledge retrieval
* Learning
* Metaknowledge
* Philosophical skepticism
* Procedural knowledge
* Propædia (outline of human knowledge)
* Propositional knowledge
* Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge
* Tacit knowledge
* Theory of Knowledge
* Truth
* Knowledge is Power
* Objectivist epistemology


External links

* [ IntellectToday] - An Organization that works to further research and development in the fields of science and knowledge.
* [ World Knowledge Dialogue Symposium] - An initiative to bridge the gap between the natural and the human/social sciences.
* [ Theory of Knowledge: The Gettier problem]
* [ Knowledge@Wharton] - aimed to offer free access to course materials for students, teachers, and self-learners
* [ INSEAD Knowledge] - showcases INSEAD's business research with articles and podcasts.
* [ Cybernetics & Human Knowing] - A Journal of Second-Order Cybernetics, Autopoiesis & Cyber-Semiotics
* [ The Incommensurability of Scientific and Poetic Knowledge]
* [,,menuPK:461238~pagePK:64156143~piPK:64154155~theSitePK:461198,00.html Knowledge for Development Program] - World Bank Institute

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  • Knowledge — • Knowledge, being a primitive fact of consciousness, cannot, strictly speaking, be defined; but the direct and spontaneous consciousness of knowing may be made clearer by pointing out its essential and distinctive characteristics Catholic… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • knowledge — know·ledge n 1 a: awareness or understanding esp. of an act, a fact, or the truth: actual knowledge (1) in this entry b: awareness that a fact or circumstance probably exists; broadly: constructive knowledge in this entry see also …   Law dictionary

  • knowledge — knowl‧edge [ˈnɒlɪdʒ ǁ ˈnɑː ] noun [uncountable] facts, skills and understanding gained through learning or experience: • Given its market knowledge, Price Waterhouse was able to provide a useful insight into each supplier. knowledge of • Auditors …   Financial and business terms

  • knowledge — knowledge, science, learning, erudition, scholarship, information, lore are comparable when they mean what is known or can be known, usually by an individual but sometimes by human beings in general. Knowledge applies not only to a body of facts… …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • Knowledge — Knowl edge, n. [OE. knowlage, knowlege, knowleche, knawleche. The last part is the Icel. suffix leikr, forming abstract nouns, orig. the same as Icel. leikr game, play, sport, akin to AS. l[=a]c, Goth. laiks dance. See {Know}, and cf. {Lake}, v.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • knowledge — ► NOUN 1) information and skills acquired through experience or education. 2) the sum of what is known. 3) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation: he denied all knowledge of the incident. ● come to one s knowledge Cf …   English terms dictionary

  • knowledge — [näl′ij] n. [ME knoweleche, acknowledgment, confession < Late OE cnawlæc < cnawan (see KNOW) + læc < lācan, to play, give, move about] 1. the act, fact, or state of knowing; specif., a) acquaintance or familiarity (with a fact, place,… …   English World dictionary

  • Knowledge — Knowl edge, v. t. To acknowledge. [Obs.] Sinners which knowledge their sins. Tyndale. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • knowledge — knowledge, sociology of …   Dictionary of sociology

  • knowledge — (n.) early 12c., cnawlece acknowledgment of a superior, honor, worship; for first element see KNOW (Cf. know). Second element obscure, perhaps from Scandinavian and cognate with the lock action, process, found in WEDLOCK (Cf. wedlock). Meaning… …   Etymology dictionary

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