- Projective space
In

mathematics a**projective space**is a set of elements constructed from a vector space such that a distinct element of the projective space consists of all non-zero vectors which are equal up to a multiplication by a non-zero scalar. A formal definition of a projective space can be formulated in several ways, and can also be made more abstract, see below. The projective space generated from a particular vector space "V" is often denoted "P(V)". The cases when "V"=**R**^{2}or "V"=**R**^{3}are theprojective line and theprojective plane , respectively.The idea of a projective space relates to perspective, more precisely to the way an eye or a camera projects a 3D scene to a 2D image. All points which lie on a projection line (i.e. a "line-of-sight"), intersecting with the focal point of the camera, are projected onto a common image point. In this case the vector space is

**R**^{3}with the camera focal point at the origin and the projective space corresponds to the image points.Projective spaces can be studied as a separate field in mathematics, but are also used in various applied fields,

geometry in particular. Geometric objects, such as points, lines, or planes, can be given a representation as elements in projective spaces based onhomogeneous coordinates . As a result, various relations between these objects can be described in simpler way than is possible without homogeneous coordinates. Furthermore, various statements in geometry can be made more consistent and without exceptions. For example, in the standard geometry for the plane two lines always intersect at a point except when the lines are parallel. In a projective representation of lines and points, however, such an intersection point exists even for parallel lines, and it can be computed in the same way as other intersection points.Other mathematical fields where projective spaces play a significant role are

topology , the theory ofLie group s andalgebraic group s, and their representation theories.**Introduction**As outlined above, projective space is a geometric object formalizing statements like "Parallel lines intersect at infinity". For concreteness, we will give the construction of the

real projective plane **R**ℙ^{2}in some detail.There are three equivalent definitions: First, the set of all lines in (real 3-)space**R**^{3}passing through the origin (0, 0, 0). Every such line meets thesphere of radius one centered in the origin exactly twice, say in "P" = ("x", "y", "z") and itsantipodal point ("-x", "-y", "-z"). Thus**R**ℙ^{2}can also be described to be the points on the sphere "S"^{2}, where every point "P" and its antipodal point are not distinguished. For example, the point (1, 0, 0) (red point in the image) is identified with (-1, 0, 0) (light red point), etc. Finally, yet another equivalent definition is the set ofequivalence classes of**R**^{3}(0, 0, 0), i.e. 3-space without the origin, where two points "P" = ("x", "y", "z") and "Pˈ" = ("xˈ", "yˈ", "zˈ") are equivalentiff there is a nonzero real number "λ" such that "P" = "λ·Pˈ", i.e. "x" = "λxˈ", "y" = "λyˈ", "z" = "λzˈ". The usual way to write an element of the projective plane, i.e. the equivalence class corresponding to an honest point ("x", "y", "z") in**R**^{3}, is : ["x" : "y" : "z"] This goes under the name ofhomogenous coordinates .Notice that any point ["x" : "y" : "z"] with "z" ≠ 0 is equivalent to ["x/z" : "y/z" : 1] . So there are two disjoint subsets of the projective plane: that consisting of the points ["x" : "y" : "z"] = ["x/z" : "y/z" : 1] for "z" ≠ 0, and that consisting of the remaining points ["x" : "y" : 0] . The latter set can be subdivided similarly into two disjoint subsets, with points ["x/y" : 1 : 0] and ["x" : 0 : 0] . In the last case, "x" is necessarily nonzero, because the origin was not part of

**R**ℙ^{2}. Thus the point is equivalent to [1 : 0 : 0] . Geometrically, the first subset, which is isomorphic (not only as a set, but also as a manifold, as will be seen later) to**R**^{2}, is in the image the yellow upper hemisphere (without the equator), or equivalently the lower hemisphere. The second subset, isomorphic to**R**^{1}, corresponds to the green line (without the two marked points), or, again, equivalently the light greenline. Finally we have the red point or the equivalent light red point. We thus have a disjoint decomposition :**R**ℙ^{2}=**R**^{2}⊔**R**^{1}⊔ "point".Intuitively already clear, and made precise below,**R**^{1}⊔ "point" is itself thereal projective line **R**ℙ^{1}. Considered as a subset of**R**ℙ^{2}, it is called "line at infinity", whereas**R**^{2}⊂**R**ℙ^{2}is called "affine plane", i.e. just the usual plane.The next objective is make precise the saying: "parallel lines meet at infinity". A natural bijection between the plane "z" = 1 (which meets the sphere at the

north pole "N" = (0, 0, 1)) and the affine plane (i.e. the upper hemisphere) inside projective plane is accomplished by thestereographic projection , i.e. any point "P" on this plane is mapped to the intersection point of the line through the origin and "P" and the sphere. Therefore two lines "L"_{1}and "L"_{2}(blue) in the plane are mapped to what looks likegreat circles (antipodal points are identified, though). Great circles intersect precisely in two antipodal points, which are identified in the projective plane, i.e. "any" two lines have exactly one intersection point inside**R**ℙ^{2}. This phenomenon is axiomatized and studied inprojective geometry .**Definition of projective space**"

Real projective space " is defined by:**R**ℙ"^{n}" := (**R**^{"n"+1}{**0**})/~,with the equivalence relation ("x"_{0}, ..., "x_{n}") ~ ("λx"_{0}, ..., "λx_{n}"), where "λ" is an arbitrary non-zero real number. Equivalently, it is the set of all lines in**R**^{"n"+1}passing through the origin**0**:= (0, ..., 0).Instead of

**R**, one may take any arbitrary field, or even adivision ring "k". For the complex numbers or thequaternions , one obtains the "complex projective space "**C**ℙ"^{n}" and "quaternionic projective space "**H**ℙ"^{n}". Inalgebraic geometry the usual notation for projective space is ℙ"^{n}_{k}".If "n" is one or two, it is also called

projective line orprojective plane , respectively. The complex projective line is also calledRiemann sphere .As in the above special case, the notation (so-called "homogenous coordinates") for a point in projective space is: ["x"

_{0}: ... : "x_{n}"] .Slightly more general, for a

vector space "V" (over some field "k", or, more generally a module "V" over some division ring), ℙ("V") is defined to be ("V"{**0**})/~, where two non-zero vectors "v"_{1}, "v"_{2}in "V" are equivalent if they differ by a non-zero scalar "λ", i.e. "v"_{1}= "λ·v"_{2}. The vector space need not be finite-dimensional, which is used, for example, in the theory ofprojective Hilbert space s.In the theory of

Alexander Grothendieck , especially in the construction of projective bundles, there are reasons for applying the construction outlined above rather to thedual space "V"*, the reasons being that we would like to associate a projective space to every scheme "Y" and "every" quasi-coherent sheaf "E" over "Y", not just the locally free ones. See EGA_{II}, Chap. II, par. 4 for more details.**Projective space as a manifold**The above definition of projective space gives a set. For purposes of

differential geometry , which deals withmanifold s, it is useful to endow this set with a (real or complex) manifold structure.Namely consider the following subsets: "U

_{i}" = { ["x"_{0}: ...: "x_{n}"] , "x_{i}" ≠ 0}, "i" = 0, ..., "n". By the definition of projective space, their union is the whole projective space. Further, "U_{i}" is in bijection to**R**^{"n"}(or**C**^{"n"}) via:$[x\_0:\; ...:\; x\_n]\; mapsto\; (frac\{x\_0\}\{x\_i\},\; ...,\; hat\{frac\{x\_i\}\{x\_i,\; ...,\; frac\{x\_n\}\{x\_i\})$:$[y\_0:\; ...:\; y\_\{i-1\}:\; 1:\; y\_\{i+1\}:\; ...\; y\_n]\; leftarrow\; (y\_0,\; ...,\; hat\{y\_i\},\; ...\; y\_n)$(the hat means that the "i"-th entry is missing).The example image shows

**R**ℙ^{1}. (Antipodal points are identified in**R**ℙ^{1}, though). It is covered by two copies of the real line**R**, each of which covers the projective line except one point, which is "the" (or a) point at infinity.We first define a

topology on projective space by declaring that these maps shall behomeomorphisms , that is, an subset of "U_{i}" is openiff its image under the above isomorphism is anopen subset (in the usual sense) of**R**^{"n"}. An arbitrary subset "A" of**R**ℙ"^{n}" is open if all intersections "A" ∩ "U_{i}" are open. This defines atopological space .The manifold structure is given by the above maps, too.

Another way to think about the projective line is the following: take two copies of the affine line with coordinates "x" and "y", respectively, and glue them together along the subsets "x" ≠ 0 and "y" ≠ 0 via the maps:$x\; mapsto\; frac\{1\}\{x\},\; ,\; y\; mapsto\; frac\{1\}\{y\}.$The resulting manifold is the projective line. The charts given by this construction are the same as the ones above. Similar presentations exist for higher-dimensional projective spaces.

The above decomposition in disjoint subsets reads in this generality::

**R**ℙ"^{n}" =**R**^{"n"}⊔**R**^{"n"-1}⊔ ... ⊔**R**^{1}⊔**R**^{0},this so-called "cell-decomposition" can be used to calculate thesingular cohomology of projective space.All of the above holds for complex projective space, too. The complex

projective line **C**ℙ^{1}is an example of aRiemann surface .The covering by the above open subsets also shows that projective space is an

algebraic variety (or scheme), it is covered by "n" + 1 affine "n"-spaces. The construction of projective scheme is an instance of theProj construction .**Why the projective space is "better" than the affine space**There are a number of mathematically deeply meaningful advantages of the projective space against

affine space (e.g.**RP**^{"n"}vs.**R**^{"n"}). For these reasons it is important to know when a given manifold or variety is "projective", i.e. embeds into (is a closed subset of) projective space. (Very) ample line bundles are designed to tackle this question.- Projective space is a compact topological space, affine space is not. Therefore, Liouville's theorem applies to show that every holomorphic function on
**CP**^{"n"}is constant. Another consequence is, for example, that integrating functions ordifferential forms on**P**^{"n"}does not cause convergence issues. - On a projective complex manifold "X", cohomology groups of
coherent sheaves "F"- "H"
^{∗}("X", "F")

- "H"
- For complex projective space, every complex submanifold "X" ⊂
**CP**^{"n"}(i.e., a manifold cut out byholomorphic equations) is necessarily an algebraic variety (i.e., given by "polynomial" equations). This isChow's theorem , it allows the direct use of algebraic-geometric methods for these ad hoc analytically defined objects. - As outlined above, lines in
**P**^{2}or more generallyhyperplane s in**P**^{"n"}always do intersect. This extends to non-linear objects, as well: appropriately defining the degree of analgebraic curve , which is roughly the degree of the polynomials needed to define the curve (seeHilbert polynomial ), it is true (over analgebraically closed field "k") that any two projective curves "C"_{1}and "C"_{2}⊂**P**_{"k"}^{"n"}of degree "e" and "f" intersect in exactly "e"·"f" points, counting them with multiplicities (seeBézout's theorem ). This is applied, for example, in defining a group structure on the points of anelliptic curve , like "y"^{2}= "x"^{3}−"x"+1. The degree of an elliptic curve is 3. Consider the line "x" = 1, which intersects the curve (inside affine space) exactly twice, namely in (1, 1) and (1,−1). However, inside**P**^{2}, the projective closure of the curve is given by the homogeneous equation- "y"
^{2}·"z" = "x"^{3}−"x"·"z"^{2}+"z"^{3},

**P**^{2}by "x" = "z") in three points: [1: 1: 1] , [1: −1: 1] (corresponding to the two points mentioned above), and [0: 1: 0] . - "y"
- Any projective
group variety , i.e. a projective variety, whose points form an abstract group, is necessarily anabelian variety , i.e. the group operation iscommutative . Elliptic curves are examples for abelian varieties. The commutativity fails for non-projective group varieties, as the example GL_{"n"}("k") (thegeneral linear group ) shows.

**Axiomatic characterization of projective space**There is an alternative axiomatic approach to projective spaces defining them as an

incidence structure with certain properties. This approach does not rely on the construction over vector spaces (ℙ("V")) and is in particular popular in the fields offinite geometry andcombinatorics . For a projective space of dimension "≧3" it can be shown that it is isomorphic to ℙ("V") for some "V". However for projective spaces of dimension 2 (projective planes) this is not true, i.e. there exist projective planes which are not isomorphic to ℙ("V") for any "V", so the ℙ("V") construction does not describe all projective planes. A projective plane that is constructed over aMoulton plane is an example of such a projective plane, that cannot be described through ℙ("V") for some "V".**Morphisms**Injective

linear map s "T" ∈ "L"("V","W") between two vector spaces "V" and "W" over the same field "k" induce mappings of the corresponding projective spaces via :$mathbb\; P(V)\; ightarrow\; mathbb\; P(W),\; [mathbf\{v\}]\; mapsto\; [T(mathbf\{v\})]\; ,$where**v**is a non-zero element of "V" and [...] denotes the equivalence classes of a vector under the defining identification of the respective projective spaces. Since members of the equivalence class differ by a scalar factor, and linear maps preserve scalar factors, this induced map iswell-defined . (If "T" is not injective, it will have anull space larger than {0}; in this case the meaning of the class of "T"("v") is problematic if "v" is non-zero and in the null space. In this case one obtains a so-calledrational map , see alsobirational geometry ).Two linear maps "S" and "T" in "L"("V","W") induce the same map between ℙ("V") and ℙ("W")

iff they differ by a scalar multiple of the identity, that is if "T"="λS" for some "λ" ≠ 0. Thus if one identifies the scalar multiples of theidentity map with the underlying field, the set of "k"-linearmorphism s from ℙ("V") to ℙ("W") is simply ℙ("L"("V","W")).The

automorphism s ℙ("V") → ℙ("V") can be described more concretely. (We deal only with automorphisms preserving the base field "k"). Using the notion of sheaves generated by global sections, it can be shown that any algebraic (not necessarily linear) automorphism has to be linear, i.e. coming from a (linear) automorphism of the vector space "V". They form the group "GL"("V"). By identifying maps which differ by a scalar, one concludes:Aut(ℙ("V")) = Aut("V")/"k"^{∗}= "GL"("V")/"k"^{∗}=: "PGL"("V"),thequotient group of "GL"("V") modulo the matrices which are scalar multiples of the identity. (These matrices form the center of Aut("V")). The groups "PGL" are calledprojective linear group s. The automorphisms of the complex projective line**C**ℙ^{1}are calledMöbius transformation s.**Generalizations**The projective space, being the "space" of all one-dimensional linear subspaces of a given vector space "V" is generalized to

Grassmannian manifold , which is parametrizing higher-dimensional subspaces (of some fixed dimension) of "V". More generallyflag manifold is the space of flags, i.e. chains of linear subspaces of "V". Even more generally,moduli space s parametrize objects such aselliptic curve s of a given kind.Patching projective spaces together yields

projective space bundles .Severi-Brauer varieties are

algebraic varieties over a field "k" which become isomorphic to projective spaces after an extension of the base field "k".Projective spaces are special cases of toric varieties. Another generalisation are

weighted projective space s.**ee also***

projective transformation

*projective representation **External links***http://mathworld.wolfram.com/ProjectiveSpace.html

*http://eom.springer.de/P/p075350.htm

*http://planetmath.org/encyclopedia/ProjectiveSpace.html**References*** | year=1998

* | year=1974

* | year=1968

* | year=1977, esp. chapters I.2, I.7, II.5, and II.7- Projective space is a compact topological space, affine space is not. Therefore, Liouville's theorem applies to show that every holomorphic function on

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