- Strategy map
In the realm of business, the concept of strategy maps was introduced in the U.S. by
Robert S. Kaplanand David P. Norton. The standard reference is their book "Strategy-focused Organization".Citation
last = Kaplan
first = Robert S.
author-link = Robert S. Kaplan
last2 = Norton
first2 = David P.
title = The Strategy-focused Organization: How Balanced Scorecard Companies thrive in the new business environment.
publisher = Harvard Business School Press
year = 2001
isbn = 978-1591391340] .As a further standard reference is their third book "Strategy Maps", but the focus was set more on the fourth perspective "learning and growth". The strategy map was the answer of a missing tool between strategy and the balanced scorecard. It is the connection between a strategy paper and an operative implementation plan.
Origin of Strategy Maps
Kaplan and Norton are credited with developing the balanced scorecard, now a strategy mapping tool, in 1992. This appeared in a paper, "The Balanced Scorecard: Measures Which Drive Performance" in the January 1992 edition of
Harvard Business ReviewCitation
last = Kaplan
first = Robert S.
author-link = Robert S. Kaplan
last2 = Norton
first2 = David P.
title = The Balanced Scorecard: Measures Which Drive Performance
journal = Harvard Business Review
date = January
year = 1992
url = http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu/b01/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id=R0507Q&referral=1043
id = ] . The focus of the balanced scorecard is toprovide organizations with metrics against which to measure theirsuccess. The underlying principle was that "you cannot manage whatyou cannot measure".
Based on continued experience with organizations that successfullyimplemented the balanced scorecard, Kaplan and Norton came to realizethat there were two important factors that made organizationsimplement the balanced scorecard successfully -- the factors offocus and alignment. Organizations, while drawing up the scorecard for themselves,were forced to rethink their strategic priorities and describe their strategies.This led Kaplan and Norton to a further principle -- "you cannot measure what you cannot describe".Strategy maps, which had earlier been a part of the process of constructingthe balanced scorecard, now became the central theme.
So the balanced scorecard has been evolving from a performance management tool to a comprehensive strategic management tool.
Strategy maps are a way of providing a "macro" view of an organization's strategy, and provide it with a language in which theycan describe their strategy, prior to constructing metrics to evaluateperformance against their strategies.
Strategy maps were discussed briefly in Kaplan and Norton's book on theBalanced Scorecard. A more comprehensive treatment is offered in their2004 book -- Strategy Maps.
The "balance" in the balanced scorecard refers to the recognition that to achieve a comprehensive view of an organization's performance, it needs to be seen from different viewpoints, or perspectives. In the past, organizations only tended to look at financial measures, which are lagging indicators. Leading indicators come from three other perspectives, so that there are four perspectives in all:
* Financial perspective: In private-sector organizations, this perspective contains the financial results such as profit, return on capital, cash flow, and margins. In non profit organizations, it describes income from sponsors or taxpayers, cash flow and cost control results.
* Customer perspective: The customer is concerned with:
** Performance and Service
** Price or rate
* Internal (business) process perspective: Involves:
** Operations management processes
** Customer management processes
** Innovation processes
** Social and regulatory processes.
* Learning and growth perspective: Includes human, information and organizational capital or capacities.These four perspectives are sufficient to describe any organization's strategy, although variants abound. The order of the perspectives is important. For a private-sector organization, the financial perspective belongs at the top, where end results such as profitability will be placed. For a public-sector or nonprofit organization, the customer perspective belongs at the top, followed by the financial perspective. Apart from this rule, the basic framework of the four perspectives is robust and appropriate for any organization's strategic plan. It is important to recognize that it is the strategic objectives within the strategy map where creativity belongs, not in the basic framework itself.
Strategic improvements flow from the bottom up to a final result. So in planning, we begin by looking at a higher perspectiveto identify what we need. We then see what work needs to be done at thelower perspectives in order to achieve this. This information isencoded in the strategy map. The arrows of effect are from lowerperspectives to higher perspectives, but the arrows of strategicinference (that are not explicitly drawn in the strategy map) are fromhigher perspectives to lower perspectives.The higher perspectives involve explicit stakeholders --shareholders in the case of the financial perspective and customers inthe case of the customer perspective. The lowest perspective, however,has no explicit stakeholders. Improvement in terms of the lowerperspectives has a long
gestation periodbut it is the sole way tobring about a lasting and dramatic change in the organization'sperformance. The human, information and organization capital referredto in the lowest perspective are termed intangible assetsby Kaplanand Norton.
Mission and Vision
The mission of an organization is a concise statement of the reason for the organization's existence, the basic purpose towards which its activities are directed. The mission is linked with some "core values" guiding its employees' activities. The mission may also describe the organizaton's unique capabilities, its region or jurisdiction and how the organization delivers value to customers.
The vision of an organization is a concise statement that defines success. It is the organization's "picture of the future".
The strategy is the means by which an organization plans to achieve its vision. The strategy map is a cause-and-effect chain of strategic objectives by which the strategy will be implemented.
Kaplan and Norton discuss an important notion, the "'valueproposition"'. The concept is based on earlier work done by theinfluential economist and business theorist,
Michael Porter. Thevalue proposition is the mix of commodity, quality, price, service andwarranty that the organization offers to its customers. The valueproposition is aimed at targeting certain customers, that is, it hascertain target segments. Kaplan and Norton talk of four broadclasses of value propositions:
* Best buy or Low total cost: Affordable prices, reliable quality, quick service. For instance, Southwestern Airlines, a much touted case in business studies, adopted a best buy strategy.
* Product leadership and innovation: The cutting edge products or industry leaders. Companies like
Ericsson, Motorolaoffer such a value proposition.
* Customer complete solutions: Tailor made for the customer's individual needs and preferences.
IBMoffers customer complete solutions.
* Lock in: The concept was introduced by
Michael Porter. The organization tries to get a large number of buyers in a position where they are left with practically no alternative but to buy their products. For instance, they sell certain auxiliary products at cheap prices, which are not compatible with products made by other organizations. Lock in strategies exploit high switching costsfor the customers making them stick to the organization. Lock in related to the concept of coercive monopoly. It can be argued that IBM's SNA strategy was one of lock-in. IBM ensured that SNA was required at key points in their mainframe architecture. As the SNA specification was complex, incomplete and subject to change by IBM, the competition were unable to provide an effective alternative. This locked customers into buying IBM products to ensure compatibility.Fact|date=May 2008Different value propositions suit different target segments ofcustomers. The actual value proposition offered by an organization mayhave a mix of the above components.
Internal process perspective
A crucial fact brought out by Kaplan and Norton is that the "nature"of the value proposition determines the kind of internal processes onwhich to focus more. The approximate correspondence between the primaryvalue proposition and the primary internal process perspective is asfollows:
* Best buy corresponds to the operations management perspective
* Customer complete solutions corresponds to the customer managementperspective
* Product leadership and innovations corresponds to the innovationsperspective
Operations management processes
There are four main kinds of processes:
* Develop and sustain supplier relationships
* Produce products and services
* Distribute and deliver products and services to customers
* Manage risks
Effort should be made to reduce "lead times" as experienced by thecustomer between placing the orderand delivery at the doorstep,and not just to reduce the time taken in the factory.
Customer management processes
As mentioned earlier, customer management processes have the following four components:
* Customer selection: Determination of the target segments of customers
* Customer acquisition
* Customer retention
* Customer growth
Ideally, a company would like to classify customers based on the nature of relationships they seek with the company.The classification may be based on the following parameters:
* Use intensity
* Benefits sought
In practice, when the customers are spread across large consumer markets, the following indicators are used:
* Demographic factors
* Geographic factors
* Lifestyle factors
Based on this classification, the company may decide on the target segments and may also decide on customer segments that it does "not" want to cultivate.
Customer retention is important because retaining a customer gives greater return on investment than trying to acquirea new customer.
Customer growth involves getting the customers to participate, helping develop a feeling of customer commitment.Customers are asked to come up with creative solutions, and loyal customers are given special offers.
There are four important processes:
* Identify opportunities for new products and services
* Manage the research and development portfolio
* Design and develop the new products and services
* Bring the new products and services into the market
The design and development of new projects consists of the following stages:
* Concept development
* Product planning
* Detailed product and process engineering
The product development process has been likened by many authors to a "funnel". At the initial stages,the project has the maximum flexibility. As it gets developed, it becomes narrower and narrower, as optionskeep getting discarded.
Regulatory and social processes
In an age of environmental consciousness, companies need to understand every
externalityof their activities. This is important in two ways:
* Companies need to comply with laws and statutory regulations
* Companies would like a good environmental and people friendly reputation that generates customer goodwill
There are four dimensions to regulatory and social processes:
* Environment: Issues such as energy and resource consumption, and emissions into the air, water and soil
* Safety and health: Safety hazards to employees
* Employment practices: Diversity of employees
* Community investment: This is discussed below
Many large corporations have established foundations by which money is systematically directed towards worthy community-based organizations.
Porter and Kramer have put forward the theory that companies must invest in a manner to improve their "competitive" context.Porter and Kramer identify four elements of a competitive context that companies can influence through philanthropic activities:
* "Input factor conditions": Increase in the supply of trained workers, scientific and technological institutions, and good physical infrastructure.
* "Demand conditions": Training people to make them possible target segments for the company's goods and services.
* "Rules for competition and rivalry": High performance companies can donate to organizations that help maintain the rule of law and prevent theft of their intellectual property by unscrupulous rivals.
* "Related and supporting industries": Companies can invest in suppliers and infrastructure that supports the industry in which they compete.
Learning and growth perspective
Though the intangible assets of an organization are the most powerfulmeans by which to effect permanent change in the organization, the ideaof strategy maps is to plan in a
top downway -- start with theneeds of the higher perspectives and work downwards to figure out whatis needed at the level of the human, organization and informationcapital. Often this perspective is labeled "Organization Capacity" or "Capacity Building" to indicate that it covers infrastructure as well as human capacities.
Kaplan and Norton outline the following multi step strategy for improving human capital:
* Identify the strategic job families
* Develop the competency profile
* Assess the human capital readiness
* Formulate a plan for improving the human capital
There are three areas of information capital application:
* "Transaction processing applications": This involves the day to day, repetitive tasks.
* "Analytic applications": This involves statistical analysis used to understand and improve
* "Transformation applications": This involves change in the nature of business
Organization has the following four elements:
* "Culture": This describes the perception across the company of its goals, mission, and policies.
* "Leadership" and accountability
* "Alignment": Linking rewards to performance
* "Teamwork": A system of global knowledge management
The book by Kaplan and Norton also contains a number of case studies. These include both profit and non profit organizations.Some non profit organizations are:
* American Diabetes Association
* Boston Lyric Opera
* Fulton County School System
* Teach For America
Balanced Scorecardis just one of many scorecards now used in business circles.Some of the others are:
* Consultant Scorecard
* HR Scorecard
* Total Performance Scorecard
* The Performance Prism
* A Balancing Act, by The Balanced Scorecard Institute [http://www.balancedscorecard.org/Portals/0/PDF/perform.pdf]
* Strategic decision making and national differences [http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=952292]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.