:"For the bone, see stapes. For other uses of the word stirrup, see Stirrup (disambiguation)."

The stirrup is a ring with a flat bottom fixed on a leather strap, usually hung from each side of a saddle by an adjustable strap to create a footrest for a person using a riding animal (usually a horse or other equine, such as a mule), used as a support for the foot of a rider when seated in the saddle and as an aid in mounting. It greatly increases the rider's ability to stay in the saddle and control the mount, increasing the animal's usefulness in communication, transportation and warfare. It is considered one of the basic tools used to create and spread modern civilization. Some argue it is as important as the wheel or printing press.

The English word "stirrup" stems from Old English "stirap, stigrap", or Middle English "stirop, styrope", [ [ definition] ] i.e. a mounting or climbing-rope.


The stirrup, which gave greater stability to a rider, has been described as one of the most significant inventions in the history of warfare, prior to gunpowder. As a tool allowing expanded use of horses in warfare, the stirrup is often called the third revolutionary step in equipment, after the chariot and the saddle. The basic tactics of mounted warfare were significantly altered by the stirrup. A rider supported by stirrups was less likely to fall off while fighting, and could deliver a blow with a weapon that more fully employed the weight and momentum of horse and rider.

Early development

The invention of the stirrup occurred relatively late in history, considering the fact that horses were domesticated in approximately 4500 BC, and the earliest forms of the saddle-a simple blanket with light padding and a surcingle appeared about 800 BC. The earliest foot support was a toe loop that held the big toe was used in India possibly as early as 500 BC. [Chamberlin, J. Edward. Horse: How the Horse Has Shaped Civilizations Bluebridge, 2006. ISBN 0-9742405-9-1] Later, a single stirrup was used as a mounting aid by a nomadic group known as the Sarmatians. [ [ "Stirrups" ] ]

The invention of the solid saddle tree allowed development of the true stirrup as it is known today. [Bennett, Deb. "Conquerors: The Roots of New World Horsemanship." Amigo Publications Inc; 1st edition 1998, p. 100. ISBN 0-9658533-0-6] Without a solid tree, the rider's weight in the stirrups creates abnormal pressure points and make the horse's back sore. [ [ "Treeless Saddles"] Web site accessed Feb 2, 2008] Modern researchers have done thermography studies on "treeless" and flexible tree saddle designs have found that there is considerable friction across the center line of a horse's back. [ [ West, Christy. "AAEP 2004: Evaluating Saddle Fit." "," February 04 2005, Article # 5393] Web site accessed February 2, 2008]

In Asia, early solid-treed saddles were made of felt that covered a wooden frame. [ [ "The History of Western Leather Spurs and Spur Straps, Cuffs, Chaps, Chinks and Saddles."] Web site accessed February 2, 2008.] These designs date to approximately 200 BC. [ "History of the Saddle."] Web site accessed February 2, 2008] One of the earliest solid-treed saddles in the west was first used by the Romans as early as the first century BC, [Gawronski R. S. "Some Remarks on the Origins and Construction of the Roman Military Saddle." "Archeologia (Archaeology)" 2004, vol: 55, number: , pages: 31-40] but this design also did not have stirrups. The first dependable representation of a rider with paired stirrups was found in China in a Jin Dynasty tomb of about A.D. 322. [ Dien, Albert. "THE STIRRUP AND ITS EFFECT ON CHINESE MILITARY HISTORY"] ] [ [ "The stirrup - history of Chinese science." "UNESCO Courier, October, 1988] ] [ [ "The invention and influences of stirrup"] ] The stirrup appeared to be in widespread use across China by 477 AD. [Hobson, John M. "The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation." Cambridge University Press,2004, p. 103 ISBN-13: 9780521547246, ISBN-10: 0521547245]

Stirrups reached Sweden in the 6th century, leading to the establishment of mounted Thegns during the Swedish Vendel Age. Rich graves from this period held the remains and regalia of mounted elite warriors, which include stirrups. [ [ Swedish historical museum] ] The importance of the horse during this time is reflected in the later Norse sagas, where the 6th century Swedish king Adils is said to have been a great lover of horses and to have had the best horses of his days. Interestingly, all accounts of this king's warfare describe him as fighting on horseback, although the later Vikings rarely did so. A 6th century writer, Jordanes, claimed that the Swedes had the best horses beside the Thuringians, reflecting the importance of the horse during this time.

By the 7th century, primarily due to invaders from Central Asia, such as the Avars, stirrups spread across Asia to Europe. [ [ "Stirrup", accessed December 4, 2006] ] By the 8th century, they appear to have been adopted by the Europeans. [ [ Dien, Albert. "The Stirrup and its Effect on Chinese Military History"] ] Among other advantages, stirrups provided greater balance and support to the rider, which allowed the knight to use a sword more efficiently without falling, especially against infantry adversaries. Contrary to common image, stirrups do not enable the horseman to use a lance more effectively (cataphracts had used lances since antiquity), but a cantled saddle does. [ [ "Saddle, Lance and Stirrup"] ]

Charles Martel recognized the military potentialities of the stirrup,and distributed seized lands to his retainers on condition that they serve him by fighting in the new manner. [ World Decade for Cultural Development 1988-1997. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. World Decade Secretariat.] ] Later, Charlemagne ordered his poorer vassals to pool their resources and provide a mounted and armed knight, though the system proved unworkable, and instead the system of distributing land to vassals based on a knight's service was developed.

The Great Stirrup Controversy

The introduction of the stirrup not only made the mounted warrior supreme in medieval warfare, but may have initiated complex and far-reaching social and cultural changes in Europe. Some scholars credit this use of the stirrup to the birth of feudalism and its subsequent spread into Northern Italy, Spain, Germany and into the Slavic territories. One theory suggested that the rising feudal class structure of the European Middle Ages derived ultimately from the use of stirrups: "Few inventions have been so simple as the stirrup, but few have had so catalytic an influence on history. The requirements of the new mode of warfare which it made possible found expression in a new form of western European society dominated by an aristocracy of warriors endowed with land so that they might fight in a new and highly specialized way." [White Jr., Lynn . "Medieval Technology and Social Change" (1966)] Most scholars, however, dispute this assertion, suggesting that stirrups may provide little advantage in shock warfare, but are useful primarily in allowing a rider to lean farther to the left and right on the saddle while fighting, and simply reduce the risk of falling off. Therefore, it is argued, they are not the reason for the switch from infantry to cavalry in Medieval militaries, nor the reason for the emergence of Feudalism. ["see, e.g." D. A. Bullough, "English Historical Review" (1970) and Bernard S. Bachrach, "Charles Martel, Mounted Shock Combat, the Stirrup, and Feudalism" in "Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History" (1970).]

Asian innovations

Japanese stirrups, or abumi, from the Edo period (AD 1603-1868) had a distinctive swanlike shape, curved up and backward at the front so as to bring the loop for the leather strap over the instep and achieve a correct balance. Most of the surviving specimens from this period are made entirely of iron inlaid with designs of silver or other materials and covered with lacquer. In some examples there is an iron rod from the loop to the footplate near the heel to prevent the foot from slipping out. The footplates are occasionally perforated to let out water when crossing rivers, and these types are called suiba abumi. There are also abumi with holes in the front forming sockets for a lance or banner.Blair, Claude and Tarassuk, Leonid, eds. (1982). "The Complete Encyclopedia of Arms and Weapons". p.17. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 067142257X.]

tirrup leathers

Because a rider must be able to move his or her legs while riding, stirrups cannot be attached on the body of the saddle itself, but rather must be attached in a manner that allows the rider's leg a full range of motion. Therefore, stirrups are attached to a saddle by means of adjustable straps, called stirrup leathers. Depending on the design of a saddle, stirrup leathers may be attached to a "stirrup bar," a small forged steel bar embedded into the saddle tree, or may be wrapped around the bars of the tree itself. Because different riders are of different heights, and stirrups also may need to be adjusted up or down to accommodate different types of activity, stirrups leathers have buckles and holes that allow length to be adjusted.

On an English saddle, leathers are quite thin, only about one inch wide. On a western saddle, they are very heavy, three to four inches wide on the side closest to the horse, and even wider, expanded into a decorative "fender" on the outside (which also protects the rider's legs from the sweat of the horse). Stirrup leathers on other saddle designs fall in between the extremes represented by the English and western saddles.

Stirrup leathers are usually manufactured so that the smooth side of the leather faces the wearing surface, as the smooth side wears less quickly than the rough side. There are also modern alternatives to leather, including nylon, plastic covered nylon (biotane being one example) or leather over a nylon reinforced core. These new "leathers" may last longer and also resist stretching. On the other hand, they may chafe and rub the leg, and poorly-made products may break more easily than leather.

As the rider's whole weight must be carried at one side when mounting, on an English saddle, one stirrup leather often becomes stretched longer than the other, usually the left one, because most mounting occurs on that side. While a simple adjustment of the leather can even up the stirrups, to preserve the integrity and longevity of the leathers, they should be switched to the opposite sides from time to time. On a western saddle, with a heavier, permanently installed fender and stirrup leather that cannot be switched, stretching is slower and less extreme, though it also occurs in this type of saddle. Any uneveness in the leathers can be managed by adjusting the stirrup length, and if necessary, by adding extra holes in the leathers to allow them to be buckled at an intermediate point between the existing prepunched holes provided by the saddle manufacturer.

Adjustment and uses of stirrups

There are two basic methods of using stirrups, a shorter stirrup to allow more mobility and a longer stirrup to allow greater control. The stirrup itself is similar, but the length of the stirrup leather is different. In each case, the stirrup length allows the rider to remain over the center of balance of the horse for the average speed characteristic of the discipline; the faster the horse travels, the more forward the rider must be positioned, and hence the shorter the stirrup.

Long stirrups allow the rider to ride with a long leg, with the knee relaxed and only slightly bent, allowing a deep and stable seat in the saddle. When riding a long stirrup, the rider has excellent control of the horse and the greatest ability to feel and communicate with the horse via the riding aids. This provides a sturdy base for activities where precision is required or when the rider is at risk of being unseated. For both reasons, long stirrups were thus the choice of heavy cavalry such as the medieval knights, who fought in close quarters and used weapons such as the lance and long, heavy swords. Historically, this type of stirrup adjustment and the riding seat it produced was called "la brida." Today it is the choice for dressage and many types of western riders.

Shorter stirrups require a rider to keep the knees bent at a greater angle. When riding in a short stirrup, the rider has the ability to partially stand up and get the seat clear of the saddle. This allows more mobility than a longer stirrup would, but at the cost of having less feel of the horse and less security. It is a position designed to help the horse achieve greater speed, and also allows the rider greater physical mobility in the saddle. When riding with short stirrups, the rider often adopts what is known as a forward seat, thus inhibiting the horse's balance and athletic maneuverings as little as possible. In the past, this style was preferred by light cavalry. These fighters required speed and needed the flexibility to turn their own bodies in any direction to use light weapons such as the bow, javelin, short swords, and later, the rifle and pistol. The horsemen of Central Asia, such as the Mongols, used this type of stirrup, as did the islamic Bedouin and Moors of the Middle East and North Africa. Historically, this type of stirrup adjustment and the seat it produced was called "la jineta." Modern Jockeys, eventers, and show jumping riders use this type of stirrup, as do some cowboys when performing certain jobs that require a forward position to allow agility of horse and rider, such as calf roping

While an inexperienced rider may feel more secure with a slightly too-short stirrup, in reality, it is actually easier to be thrown from the horse because the rider's legs act as a stabilizing agent, much in the same way the long pole of a tightrope walker balances the acrobat. Obviously, a stirrup leather so long that a rider cannot reach it is useless, and a stirrup length that does not allow a rider with a properly positioned leg to keep the heel lower than the toe is also easily lost. However, shortening the stirrup until the rider feels they will not lose the stirrup is counterproductive; the goal of correct equestrianism is to make maximum use of the leg. Lengthening the leg creates a more secure seat, while shortening the stirrup is done only to accommodate the needs of the horse to perform athletic movement. Thus correct stirrup length creates a balance between control and mobility that fits the discipline performed.

There are a spectrum of stirrup lengths, which the rider may chose depending on the purpose. For example, in dressage, the longest possible stirrup length is used in order for the rider to have complete control over every nuance of the horse's movement. Likewise, a very long stirrup is used in the western sport of cutting, where, though the rider relinquishes control to the horse, requires maximum security to stay in the saddle during the rapid stops, turns and bursts of speed the horse uses when maneuvering cattle. For a comfortable ride over long hours at slow speeds, the long stirrup is also preferred by trail riders.

Riders jumping low fences may wish for an intermediate length stirrup that can allow the horse some freedom of movement, while supporting the rider over the fence, and still providing enough leg for excellent communication. A rider travelling rapidly cross-country, over varying terrain while fox hunting or endurance riding, will also have an intermediate stirrup, needing to strike a compromise between mobility for the horse and the need of the rider to not be unseated. In the western rodeo sport of calf roping, a moderately short stirrup is also required to help the horse to sprint quickly from the box, and to allow the cowboy the freedom to swing a lariat.

A show jumping rider will have a shorter stirrup than other English riders, in order to maximize the jumping effort of the horse. However, the rider also has the challenge of staying on over the fence and controlling the horse through rapid changes of pace and direction, so still needs some length of leg for stability.

Jockeys must be completely off their horse's backs, balanced well forward over the withers, to allow their mount optimum speed in a long, galloping stride. Therefore they have the shortest possible stirrup length. The cost for maximum speed is minimum control and security. Jockeys must be in superb muscular condition and possess outstanding balance; they cannot achieve the finesse of leg aids needed in other equestrian sports, and must rely primarily on the use of their seat and a crop for speed, and on their arm strength for directional control or slowing down. Their relative lack of control is clearly demonstrated by the use of "pony" horses to lead the race horse and jockey to the track, the use of assistants at the starting gate to load the horses, and the availability of outriders (all with much longer stirrups) to assist the jockey at the end of a race or in the event of an accident. If the horse does anything but run in essentially a straight line with long gradual curves, or if anything goes seriously wrong, jockeys can easily be thrown, as their high rate of injury so amply illustrates.

Weaknesses in design

The stirrup design does have two inherent design flaws. The first is a safety issue: even with a properly fitted stirrup, there are several ways in which the rider's foot can be trapped and cause the rider to be dragged in the event of a fall from the horse. The second is the potential negative impact on the health of the human foot.

One reason riders can become hung up is due to improper stirrup sizing. If the stirrup is too large, the foot can go through the stirrup opening and be caught. If the stirrup is too small, the foot can become trapped more easily as the foot cannot free itself. (see "Fitting the stirrup," below). Proper stirrup placement, on the ball of the foot, instead of jammed "home" clear up to the arch, also lowers the risk of a rider being dragged.

Modern English saddles are designed with a stirrup bar that allows the stirrup leathers to fall from the saddle if the rider starts to be dragged. Some English stirrups are also designed with breakaway sides or non-standard designs intended to make it easier for the foot to come out of the stirrup when necessary.

Western saddles have significantly wider stirrups, particularly at the tread, to minimize this risk. Sometimes, they are equipped with "tapaderos", leather covers over the toe that close each stirrup from the front. A tapadero prevents the rider's boot from slipping through and also prevents brush encountered while working cattle on the open range from poking through the stirrup, injuring or impeding the horse or rider. However, the tapadero is not common in modern times and is not allowed in most show competition.

The second design flaw of the stirrup affects the health of the human foot. The rider's whole weight is at times supported entirely by the stirrups. During these periods, excessive pressure can be exerted on the Peroneus Tertius tendon which runs along the lateral side of the foot. In extreme cases, stirrups have been found to cause damage to the tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal bone. Over long periods of extreme use, this can cause various medical conditions ranging from simple impaired walking to severe pronation or supination of the foot. Normal riders, however, generally have no related problems, even over a lifetime of riding. Disciplines that require long hours in the saddle, such as endurance riding and some types of western riding on a working ranch, often use a wider stirrup to provide more support to the foot.

For the comfort of the horse, all stirrups require that the saddle itself be properly designed. The solid tree of the saddle distributes the weight of the rider over a greater surface area of the horse's back, reducing pressure on any one area. If a saddle is made without a solid tree, without careful engineering, the rider's weight in the stirrups and leathers can create pressure points on the horse's back and lead to soreness. This is especially noticeable with inexpensive bareback pads that add stirrups by means of a strap across the horse's back with a stirrup at each end.

Riding boots

The risk of being dragged by a foot caught in the stirrup spawned an adaptation in riding footwear: Riding boots have a raised heel of at least a half-inch, and in special designs like the western cowboy boot, often more. This "ridge" created by the raised heel will usually catch on the bottom of the stirrup, preventing the foot from slipping through the stirrup and dragging the rider. Riding boots also have a smooth sole that can easily slide in and out of the stirrup.

Footwear such as a tennis shoe or a hiking boot is considered inappropriate for riding both because the shoe has little or no raised heel and because the heavy tread that provides traction for athletic endeavors can cause the foot to catch in the stirrup and become trapped. Modern synthetic materials have allowed the design of riding boots that will slide from a stirrup but are also comfortable for walking, with a sole using varying hard and soft materials that provides reasonable traction with a minimal amount of raised tread.

Modern Stirrups

The modern stirrup can be made from a variety of materials including metals, wood and certain synthetics. Stirrups with a wider tread tend to be more comfortable and a rider is less likely to become hung up in the event of a fall. Thinner stirrups provide greater security. Though the underlying design of a flat bottom and curved top have not significantly changed from the earliest artifacts, some modifications have made the stirrup safer and more comfortable.

One of the most dangerous problems with the stirrup is the fact that the rider can get a boot stuck in it in the event of a fall, which would result in the person being dragged. Several different designs have been developed to allow the stirrup to break away, fall off or easily release the foot if the rider falls. Other modern stirrup designs have changed the angle or orientation of the tread, either permanently or by added hinges, supposedly to help the rider flex the ankle and get weight into the heels. Other experimental improvements have included a swivel feature at the top of the leather to keep the stirrup turned out to face the rider's foot.

English-style stirrups

Stirrups used on English saddles are usually made of metal. Though called "irons," they are no longer made of iron, as a rule, but instead stainless steel is the metal of choice, due to its strength, though when weight is an issue, such as for a jockey, they may also be made of aluminum. Inexpensive stirrups may be made of nickel, which can easily bend or break and should be avoided. Stirrups may also be made of synthetic materials and various metallic alloys. There are many variations on the standard stirrup design, most claiming to either be safer in the event of a fall or to make it easier for a rider to maintain a proper foot and leg position.

Some variations include:

* Standard iron: The most common stirrup iron, consisting of a tread, with two branches, and an eye at the top for the leather to run through.
* Bent-leg Stirrups: Safety stirrups on which the outside branch is bent, rather than straight, to help the foot to release in the event of a fall.
* Safety Stirrups, also called "Peacock Stirrups": The outer branch of these stirrups are composed of a strong, thick rubber band and a leather loop, which will detach with sufficient pressure, freeing the foot. However, there are several problems with these stirrups, such as the fact that the rubber band eventually wears thin and may unexpectedly break, the rubber band may also come off completely, whether it's worn out or not and the tread of the stirrup is only supported by the inside stirrup bar, and so the tread often bends. The hook that supports the rubber band may injure an inexperienced rider during a dismount, especially if the rubber band has fallen off, making the peacock stirrup more trouble then it's possible safety benefits.
* Side-saddle stirrups: usually have a slightly larger eye to accommodate the thicker stirrup leather on a sidesaddle.
* Other designs: have joints or hinges in the branches of the stirrups to allow for them to flex. These are said to be good for riders with joint pain, though one model has recently been recalled due to a tendency for the hinges to break. ["Stubben Stirrup Recall," "Horse Journal", October, 2007, p. 22] Yet another design has an adjustable eye at the top that allows the rider to choose either a 45 degree angle, a 90 degree angle or a traditional angle for the stirrup to lay against the horse's side.

Western-style stirrups

The stirrup of a western saddle is more difficult to remove or replace than the English stirrup and therefore, unless damaged, the same stirrups usually are kept on for the life of the saddle itself. The tread is mostly flat, but may be curved at the sides to some degree. The branches are wide at the bottom and narrow at the top, where they are joined by a heavy dowel of wood, or rod of metal. The stirrup leather loops under the rod and a "keeper," a strap with a buckle that wraps around the front and back of the stirrup leather, keeps the stirrup in place. Many western stirrups are made of leather-covered wood, others of steel, aluminum, or even very strong fiber-reinforced plastic.

Western stirrups are designed to parallel the use intended by the design of the saddle itself; a trail riding saddle will have a wide, comfortable stirrup, a saddle for saddle bronc riding will have a narrow tread, to avoid being easily lost by the rider. A saddle for barrel racing or reining will have stirrups of a medium width, narrow enough to not be lost when a horse is moving at high speed, but with enough width to remain comfortable for a few hours. Stirrups on a saddle intended for western pleasure may be highly ornamented with silver. Stirrups on saddles used by people who use horses for hunting game in the forest are sometimes made of blaze orange for visibility to other hunters, and, because much big game hunting in the American West takes place late in the year when it is very cold, some "winter boot" designs are deliberately made extra large with an especially smooth bottom so that a person can wear heavy winter boots with a raised tread without as much risk of getting them caught up in the stirrup.

Fitting the Stirrup

It is very important that the stirrup be the correct width for the boot. A stirrup that is too narrow will increase the chance that the boot will get caught in it (which would be very dangerous should the rider fall), and a too-wide stirrup makes it harder for a rider to keep it under the foot, and presents some risk that the foot might slip all the way through. It is generally suggested that the stirrup be no more than 1 inch larger than the widest part of the sole of the rider's boots.

Additionally, the rider's boot should have a heel (both English and Western-style riders).

Placement of the Stirrup on the Foot

In general, the stirrup is placed on the ball of the foot, allowing the rider to let his weight flow down the back of the leg into the heel by way of the flexible ankle. This provides the rider with the support of the stirrup while still allowing for him to easily absorb the shock of the horse's motion. If the stirrup is too far forward, on the toes, the rider risks losing if he pushes with too much pressure (forcing it off the foot) or too little (allowing it to simply slide off).

Some riders ride with the stirrup more "home," or shoved toward the heel. This is seen most often in sports such as polo and eventing, where the speed and sudden changes of direction of the former, and the great change in terrain and solid fences of the latter, make the rider more likely to be jarred loose from the saddle and increases the risk of losing a stirrup. However, this placement actually puts the stirrup on the arch of the foot, in a weaker position that leads to tension in the leg, stiffness in the knee and decreases the flexibility of the ankle, and therefore the shock-absorbing ability of the rider; paradoxically increasing the risk of a fall. Additionally, it increases the chance that the rider's foot will become stuck in the stirrup during a fall, a very dangerous situation. This placement is often counterproductive and should not be used if it is not an absolute necessity. The "home" position has some value in saddle bronc riding, as a lost stirrup will almost inevitably result in the rider being thrown from the bucking horse, but because riders are thrown from the horse at a high rate even under normal circumstances, this event also has a high rate of riders being hung up in their stirrups and injured in the process.


Additional sources

*Bennett, Deb. "Conquerors: The Roots of New World Horsemanship." Amigo Publications Inc; 1st edition 1998. ISBN 0-9658533-0-6
* [ John Sloan, "The stirrup controversy"]
* [ Medieval Technology Pages:Paul J. Gans, The great stirrup controversy"]

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