- Islamic theology
Islamic theology is a branch of
Islamic studiesregarding the beliefs associated with the Islamic faith.
Types of theology
Muslim theology is the
theologythat derived from the Qur'an, Hadith, and the Muhammad's life. The contents of Muslim theology can be divided into theology proper such as theodicy, eschatology, anthropology, apophatic theology, and comparative religion.
Kalam is the
Islamic philosophyof seeking theological principles through dialectic. In Arabic, the word literally means "speech". A scholar of kalam is referred to as a "mutakallim" (Muslim theologian; plural "mutakallimiin").
Eschatologyis literally understood as the last things or ultimate things and in Muslim theology, eschatology refers to the end of this world and what will happen in the next world or hereafter. Eschatology covers the death of human beings, their souls after their bodily death, the total destruction of this world, the resurrection of human souls, the final judgments of human deeds by Allah after the resurrection, and the rewards and punishments for the believers and non-believers respectively. The places for the believers in the hereafter are known as Paradiseand for the non-believers as Hell.
Comparative religion in Muslim theology is about the differences and similarities between Muslim theology and other theologies such as
Christian, Jewishtheologies as explained in the Qur'an and the Prophetic traditions.
Differences between various Muslim groups
In the history of Muslim theology, there have been theological schools among Muslims displaying both similarities and differences with each other in regard to beliefs.
Shi`ite Muslims hold that there are five articles of belief: the Divine Oneness and Justice, the Prophethood, the
Imamate, and eschatology.
In terms of the relationship between human beings and their creator, Mu`tazilites emphasize human
free willover predestination and God's justiceover God's omnipotence. Mu'tazilites also believe in the use of logic to deduct the true meanings of the Qur'an. This, combined with the principal of Ijtihad, led to their belief in Dynamic Fiqh.
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