Hybrid grapes

Hybrid grapes

Hybrid grapes refer commonly to those grape varieties which are the product of a crossing between two or more different "Vitis" species. This is in contrast to crossings between grape varieties of the same species, typically "Vitis vinifera", the European grapevine. Hybrid grapes are also referred to as inter-specific crossings.

The best-known grape species in reference to viticulture include:

* "Vitis vinifera", the so-called European or wine grape, indigenous in the Eurasian area. Classed within this species are the best-known table and wine grape varieties such as Riesling, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Merlot and Gamay.
* "Vitis aestivalis", native to eastern North America.
* "Vitis rupestris", native to North America.
* "Vitis riparia" (also sometimes known as Vitis vulpina), the "river bank grape", native to northeastern North America.
* "Vitis amurensis", the Asiatic grape variety, native to Siberia and China.
* "Vitis rotundifolia", the muscadines, native to the southern half of the United States
* "Vitis labrusca", native to northeastern North America. Concord and Niagara are two prominent domesticated offshoots of this species.

While rare, inter-specific hybrid vines can result in the wild from cross-pollination. Due to the abundance of American "Vitis" species one finds such natural hybrid vines on the American continent. The majority of the well-known hybrid vines however, have been artificially created.

During the first half of the 20th century, various breeding programs were developed in an attempt to deal with the consequences of the Phylloxera louse, which was responsible for the destruction of European vineyards from 1863 onwards. After extensive attempts, grafting European varieties onto North American rootstock proved to be the most successful method of dealing with the problem.

Hybrid varieties exhibit a mixture of traits from their European, Asiatic, and North American parentage. Those varieties which derive from "Vitis labrusca" parentage (such as those still used in the production of Austrian Uhudler) have a strong "candied" or "wild strawberry" aroma, while those which derive from "Vitis riparia" often have a herbaceous nose with flavours reminiscent of black currants. Most hybrid grape varieties struggle to produce adequate tannin for red wine production, and usually display a level of acidity that exceeds what consumers of wines produced from vitis vinifera are accustomed to. These attributes proved unpopular in Europe, and were one of the factors which led to the prohibition of the commercial growth of hybrid vines in many countries in Europe.

However, hybrid grape varieties were introduced as a solution to many of the viticultural problems of cooler and more humid wine regions, such as those in the northeast of North America. From the 1950s onwards, grape varieties such as De Chaunac, Baco noir, Marechal Foch, Vidal, etc. have been a staple of the wine industries in Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania, etc. Only since the 1970s and 1980s have vinifera varieties begun to displace hybrid grapes in this area. Even in those areas where vitis vinifera now predominates, hybrid varieties still have "cult following" with some wine consumers. Furthermore, in some cases hybrid grapes are used to produce unique and exceptional products; for example, ice wine produced from Vidal blanc or Vignoles in Ontario and New York.

Due to their excellent tolerance to powdery mildew, other fungal diseases, nematodes, and phylloxera hybrid varieties have, to some extent, become a renewed focus for European breeding programs. The recently developed varieties, Rondo, and Regent are examples of newer hybrid grape varieties for European viticulturalists.

Some of the best-known hybrid grape breeders include:
* Francois Baco: responsible for the development Baco noir
* Eugene Kuhlmann: Originating from Alsace and known for the varieties Lucie Kuhlmann, Marechal Foch and Leon Millot
* Albert Seibel: Probably the best-known breeder, who developed an immense number of breeding between 1886 and 1936 in Aubenas. The well-known Seibel grapes include De Chaunac, Chelois, Chancellor, Cascade, Rosette, Rougeon and Aurora.
* Villard: Father of the Villard Blanc
* Bertille Seyve: His best-known crossing being Seyval Blanc.
* J.F. Ravat: known for Vignoles (Ravat 51)
* Elmer Swenson, of Wisconsin, breeder of St. Croix, St. Pepin, La Crosse, Esprit, Edelweiss (grape), Swenson Red, and Kay Gray among others.
* Bruce Reisch from Cornell University's New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, the breeder of Noiret, Corot noir, and Valvin muscat.
*T.V. Munson: often cited as the savior ref|Munson of European viticulture and the father of rootstock breeding, released dozens of cultivars and contributed greatly to the knowledge of wild American grape species.


# cite web | author=Archie P. MacDonald | title=All Things Historical | work=Dr. Thomas Volney Munson and the French Wine Industry | url=http://www.texasescapes.com/AllThingsHistorical/East-Texas-Savior-of-French-Wine-Industry-AM606.htm

See also

*List of grape varieties

External links

* [http://www.cahe.nmsu.edu/pubs/_h/h-309.html New Mexico State University]
* [http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/pubs/press/current/060707Grapes.html New hybrid grapes released from Cornell University]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Seibel grapes — are a group of wine grape varieties which originated with the work of Albert Seibel. They were planted widely in France during the 1950s but have seen decline in recent years due to the poor quality of the wines they produce. The grapes are still …   Wikipedia

  • Noble grapes — is the classical term used to describe the grapes traditionally associated with the highest quality wines. There are two qualifications for a grape in order for it to be called Noble. # It has to be able to make top quality wine by itself without …   Wikipedia

  • Baco Blanc — Grape (Vitis) A bottle of 1956 Armagnac made when Baco Blanc was the primary grape variety of the region Color of berry skin Blan …   Wikipedia

  • List of grape varieties — This is a list of varieties of cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana).The term grape varieties actually refers to cultivars rather than botanical varieties according to the… …   Wikipedia

  • Chardonnay — This article is about the grape variety. For the village in France, see Chardonnay, Saône et Loire. Moreau Blanc redirects here. For another French wine grape that is also known as Moreau Blanc, see Gouais blanc. Gentil Blanc redirects here. For… …   Wikipedia

  • Olmo grape — Dr Harold Olmo Olmo grapes are wine and table grape varieties produced by University of California, Davis viticulturist Dr. Harold Olmo. Over the course of his nearly 50 year career, Dr. Olmo bred a wide variety of both grapes by means of both… …   Wikipedia

  • Noiret — For the French actor, see Philippe Noiret. Noiret is a hybrid grape variety for use in red wine production. It was developed and named by Cornell University researchers working at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, and was… …   Wikipedia

  • Michigan wine — Michigan (wine region) A view from Chateau Chantal on Michigan s Old Mission Peninsula Official name State of Michigan …   Wikipedia

  • New York wine — New York (wine region) Official name State of New York Type U.S. state …   Wikipedia

  • Corot noir — is a Hybrid grape variety for use in red wine production. It was developed by grape breeder Bruce Reisch at the Cornell University New York State Agricultural Experiment Station and released on July 7, 2006. Corot noir is the result of a cross… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”