Battle of Mycale

Battle of Mycale

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Battle of Mycale
partof=the Persian Wars

caption=Map of the battle of Mycale. Fleeing Persians were able to follow the river to the mountain range
date=August 27, 479 BC
place=Mycale, Ionia
result=Greek victory.
territory=Persia loses the Ionian islands.
combatant1=Greek city-states
combatant2=Achaemenid Empire
strength1=40,000 men,
110 ships [Peter Green, The Greco-Persian Wars ]
strength2=60,000 men,
300 ships [Oliver Goldsmith, History of Ancient Greece]
The Battle of Mycale, Ancient Greek Polytonic|Μάχη τῆς Μυκάλης, " _gr. Mache tes Mycales", was one of the two major battles that ended the Persian invasion of Greece, during the Greco-Persian Wars. The battle took place on or about August 27, 479 BC on the slopes of Mount Mycale, in mainland Ionia opposite the island of Samos.

Mycale resulted in the destruction of the main Persian forces in Ionia, as well as their Mediterranean fleet.

The Battle of Plataea on the same day on the Greek mainland was a victory as well, and the Persians were forced to leave both Greece and Ionia and retreat inland, thereby ending Persian rule.

The battle is known to history through the writings of Herodotus of Halicarnassus.


In the spring of 479 BC various Ionian cities began the process of revolting against their Persian rulers. This did not go well at all, and soon they were forced to turn to the Greek mainland for help. A meeting was called in Athens, and ambassadors from several Ionian cities, Athens and Sparta met in the early summer. The meeting did not impress the commander of the Persian forces in Thessaly, Mardonius, so he sent terms to Athens demanding that they stay neutral. When they refused the Spartan delegation started for home to prepare for war. Meanwhile Mardonius' forces soon reached Athens, but the citizens had already retreated to nearby Salamis. Thinking the Athenians were ready to surrender, Mardonius again sent them terms, and was again refused.

While the Spartans prepared for war, eventually mustering a force of 5,000 and another 35,000 allies, a delegation from Samos arrived in Sparta asking for help. The Greek fleet of 110 ships set sail from Delos under the command of Leotychides.

The Battle

The Greek approach was heard and the Persians in Samos decide to face them on land. They sailed to the nearby peninsula of Mycale just to the east of the city, and formed a wall out of a number of their ships, dragging the rest onto the beach. When the Greek fleet arrived and found Samos empty, they started a pursuit thinking the Persians were running from battle. The Greeks soon came upon the Persians, already formed up in battle lines on shore. Leotychides yelled to the Ionians in the Persian camp:

Realizing generally what was going on, the Persians disarmed the Samians and sent their enemies, the Milesians, to guard the roads to the rear. Meanwhile the Greeks unloaded their ships and formed up for combat. As usual the Spartans occupied the right wing, placing the Athenians on the left. The Athenians, walking along the beach, found a herald's scepter and thought that it is a divine sign, signifying that the other Greeks had been victorious on the mainland. They then charged forward to the attack alone, and after a short battle the Persians, led by Artaÿntes, were forced to retreat to the fort they had constructed further inland. The Athenians chased them and captured the fort as well. The Persian survivors fled, only to find that the Milesian rear-guard had turned against them as well, and few survived to eventually reach Sardis.

When the Spartans arrived the Persian camp was looted and their beached ships destroyed. Returning to Samos they then discussed their next moves. The Spartans proposed that they evacuate the cities of the Ionian Greeks and bring the population to the Greek mainland, as they did not consider it worth their trouble to defend the Ionians every time they were attacked. The Athenians, however, objected to losing their colonies, and accepted the Ionian Greeks in a league against Persia.


With the Persians defeated, the Spartans returned to the mainland.The Ionian cities were now in league with Athens however, forming what could only be considered an Athenian Empire. Previously beholden to Sparta, Athens started exerting an increasing amount of independence, eventually resulting in the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War.


Further reading

*cite journal |last=Seager |first=Robin |authorlink= |coauthors=Tuplin, Christopher |year=1980 |month= |title=The Freedom of the Greeks of Asia: on the Origins of a Concept and the Creation of a Slogan |journal=Journal of Hellenic Studies |volume=100 |issue= |pages=141–154 |doi=10.2307/630737 |url= |accessdate= |quote=

External links

* [ Livius Picture Archive: Mycale (Dilek Dagi)]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mycale — Mount Mycale Μυκάλη Samsun Daği The flanks of Mycale behind Priene Elevation …   Wikipedia

  • Battle of Marathon — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Marathon partof=the Greco Persian Wars caption=The plain of Marathon today date=September 490 BC place=Marathon, Greece result=Athenian victory territory=Persians fail to conquer Attica… …   Wikipedia

  • Battle of Plataea — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Plataea partof=the Persian Wars caption=Map of the battlefield at Plataea date=August 27, 479 BC place=Plataea, Greece result=Decisive Greek victory. territory=Persia loses control of Attica.… …   Wikipedia

  • Battle of Salamis — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Salamis partof=the Persian Wars caption=Map of the battle battle name=Battle of Salamis date=September, 480 BC place=Off Salamis Island result=Decisive Greek victory. territory=Persia fails to conquer… …   Wikipedia

  • Battle of Lade — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Lade partof=the Ionian Revolt Persian Wars caption=Map of Lade, Miletus, and the Mycale pensinsula. date=494 BC place=Off Miletus, Ionia result=Decisive Persian victory; marks end of the Ionian Revolt …   Wikipedia

  • Delian League — Delian League, before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC Delian redirects here. For the village in Iran, see Delyan. The Delian League, founded in circa 477 BC,[1] was an association of Greek …   Wikipedia

  • Masistes — Location of Bactria within the Persian Empire. Masistes (Greek Μασίστης, Masistês; Old Iranian *Masišta[1]) (? c. 478 BC) was a Persian prince of the Achaemenid Dynasty, son of king Darius I (reign: 520 486 BC) and of his wife …   Wikipedia

  • Ionia — (Ancient Greek Ἰωνία or Ἰωνίη) is an ancient region of central coastal Anatolia in present day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greek settlements …   Wikipedia

  • List of battles (alphabetical) — Alphabetical list of historical battles (see also Military history, List of battles): NOTE: Where a year has been used to disambiguate battles it is the year when the battle started. In some cases these may still have gone on for several years.… …   Wikipedia

  • Ancient warfare — is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. In Europe and the Near East, the end of antiquity is often equated with the fall of Rome in 476. In China, it can also be seen as ending in the 5th… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”