- Sich Riflemen
The Ukrainian Sich Riflemen ( _uk. Січові Cтрільці) were one of the regular military units of the Army of the
Ukrainian People's Republic. The unit operated from 1917 to 1919 and was formed from Ukrainian soldiers of the Austro-Hungarian army, local population and former commanders of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemenin Galicia. The first battalion was formed in Kyiv on 13 November 1917. Commanded by Col. Yevhen Konovalets, the Sich Rifles had up to 25,000 men at their peak, including artillery, cavalry, reconnaissance and machine gun units.
The Sich Riflemen defended the government of UNR against the Bolshevik insurrection in the capital and later against regular Red Army forces that advanced into Ukraine in 1918. When Kyiv was recaptured in March 1918 the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen guarded government buildings in the capital and maintained order in the city. The unit later expanded to include two infantry detachments, a cavalry unit and an artillery battery. With the establishment of
Hetmanateof Pavlo Skoropadskythe Sich Riflemen refused to serve him and were disarmed by the German forces that supported the hetman. Armies of Ukraine
Soldiers from the unit joined other forces, notably Second Zaporozhian Regiment of
Petro Bolbochanand attempted to reestablish the unit under the new command. In August 1918 Skoropadsky finally allowed partial reestablishment of the unit in Bila Tserkva. The new unit consisted of 1200 men and was divided into an infantry regiment, an artillery battery and a technical unit. In Bila Tserkva the Sich Riflemen led revolt against hetman Skoropadsky and the ranks of the unit increased by November 1918 to 11,000. Later the two other Dnieper and Black Sea divisions joined the unit. In November 1918 with new recruits the ranks of the Riflemen swelled to 25,000. It played crucial role in the establishment of the Directorate under Semen Petlura. In December the unit captured Kyiv and was subsequently divided into smaller units.
Different detachments of the unit fought against advancing Bolshevik armies in Ukraine. Together with Directory the Sich Riflemen fled from Kyiv when it was recaptured by the Bolsheviks. The Riflemen also fought on different fronts against the
White Russianforces of General Denikin. In 1919 the unit took heavy losses in combat and later from typhus. On 6 December, 1919the unit was finally demobilized. Some former soldiers were interned by the Polish army, others continued to fight in other smaller detachments in Ukraine.
Ukrainian Sich Riflemen
Orest Subtelny. Ukraine. A history. University of Toronto press. 1994. ISBN 0-8020-0591-0.
* Paul Robert Magocsi. The Roots of Ukrainian Nationalism: Galicia As Ukraine's Piedmont. University of Toronto Press. 2002. ISBN 0521819881.
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