- Freshwater drum
name = Freshwater drum
status = secure
image_width = 250px
phylum = Chordata
genus = "Aplodinotus"
species = "A. grunniens"
binomial = "Aplodinotus grunniens"
binomial_authority = Rafinesque, 1819The freshwater drum, "Aplodinotus grunniens", is a fish endemic to North and
Central America. It is the only freshwater species in the genus "Aplodinotus". It is also known for its succulent flesh, but many fishermen are put off by its mucuslining and dank smell. Freshwater drum possess an adapted swim bladder which is able to produce sound. Sound production is thought to be related to spawning activity where many drum will gather in pelagic waters of an ecosystem and begin drumming.
It is also called shepherd's pie, silver bass, gray bass, [http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/wildlife/Fishing/aquanotes-fishid/fwdrum.htm Life History Notes: Freshwater Drum] Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife. Retrieved on
2007- 07-14.] Gasper goo, Gaspergou, [http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/fwd/ Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens)] . Texas Parks and Wildlife. Retrieved on 2007- 07-14.] gou, grunt, grunter, grinder, and croaker, and is commonly known as sheephead or sheepshead in parts of Canada, [Lilabeth, Miranda and Alrene G. Sampang. [http://fishbase.org/ComNames/CommonNameSummary.cfm?autoctr=73821 Common Name of Aplodinotus grunniens] . Fishbase. Retrieved on 2007- 07-14.] the United Kingdom, [Cruz, Tess and Alrene G. Sampang. [http://fishbase.org/ComNames/CommonNameSummary.cfm?autoctr=73829 Common Name of Aplodinotus grunniens] . Fishbase. Retrieved on 2007- 07-14.] and the United States. [ [http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/snapshots/fish/freshwaterdrum.html Freshwater Drum: Nature Snapshots from Minnesota DNR] . Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Nature Snapshots. Retrieved on 2007- 07-14.] [ [http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/fish/ndfishes/drum.htm Fishes of North Dakota: Drum Family] . United States Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. Retrieved on 2007- 07-14.]
Freshwater drum have the largest latitudinal range of any freshwater fish in North America. Consistent with other Sciaenids, freshwater drum are strongly nocturnal with the bulk of most catches being derived from night angling/sampling [Rypel, A.L., and J.B. Mitchell. 2007. Summer nocturnal patterns in freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunnniens). American Midland Naturalist, 157: 230-234.] . Commercial fisheries are present for this species, although market price tends to be quite low. Thus, many freshwater drum are harvested as
bycatchfrom targeted higher-value species. [ [http://www.on.ec.gc.ca/solec/nearshore-water/paper/part6.html "Nearshore Waters of the Great Lakes"] (Government website). "Environment Canada". Section 7.2.3. Retrieved on 2007- 09-26.]
The diet of the freshwater drum is generally
benthicand composed of macroinvertebrates (mainly aquatic insect larvae and bivalve mussels), as well as small fish which in certain ecosystems results in excessive accumulation of lipophilicpollutants such as PCBs which are harmful to humans (in some cases over 16 time EPA recommended levels) [Rypel, A.L., D.R. Bayne, J.B. Mitchell and R.H. Findlay. 2007. Variations in PCB concentrations between genders of six warmwater fish species in Lake Logan Martin, Alabama, U.S.A., Chemosphere, 68: 1707-1715. ] . However, accumulations of mercury tend to be lower as drum do not occupy high positions in food chains.
The name "Gasper Goo" is an English mispronunciation of the French name "Casse burgau" (mussel breaker). Freshwater mussels are a favored prey item of this fish.
otoliths are large and in the past were used by Native Americans for jewelry, currency and as good luck charms. Otoliths can also be used to estimate drum ages. The species is sexually dimorphic in terms of its size with females reaching considerably larger sizes than males [Rypel, A.L. 2007. Sexual dimorphism in growth of freshwater drum. Southeastern Naturalist, 6: 333-342.] . Freshwater drum are long-lived and have attained maximium ages of 72 years old in Red Lakes, Minnesotaand 32 years old in the Cahaba River, Alabama[Rypel, A.L., D.R. Bayne and J.B. Mitchell. 2006. Growth of freshwater drum from lotic and lentic habitats in Alabama . Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 135: 987-997.] .
* [http://www.channelconsultants.net/mcinfo/geography/images/Mess_of_Gasper_Goo_caught_at_pump_stationn_on_Little_River.jpgString of drum]
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