- Burkholderia cepacia complex
color = lightgrey
name = "Burkholderia cepacia complex"
regnum = Bacteria
species = "B. cepacia complex"
binomial = "Burkholderia cepacia complex"
binomial_authority = (Palleroni and Holmes 1981)
Yabuuchi et al. 1993
type_species = [http://www.atcc.org/common/catalog/numSearch/numResults.cfm?atccNum=25416 ATCC 25416]
CCUG 12691 and 13226
synonyms = "Pseudomonas cepacia" Burkholder 1950
"Pseudomonas multivorans" Stanier et al. 1966
"Pseudomonas cepacia" (ex Burkholder 1950) Palleroni and Holmes 1981
"Pseudomonas kingii" Jonsson 1970
"Burkholderia cepacia complex" (BCC), or simply "Burkholderia cepacia" is a group of
catalase-producing, non- lactose-fermenting Gram-negative bacteriacomposed of at least nine different species, including "B. cepacia", "B. multivorans", "B. cenocepacia", "B. vietnamiensis", "B. stabilis", "B. ambifaria", "B. dolosa", "B. anthina", and "B. pyrrocinia".cite journal |author=Lipuma J |title=Update on the Burkholderia cepacia complex |journal=Curr Opin Pulm Med |volume=11 |issue=6 |pages=528–33 |year=2005 |pmid=16217180 |doi=10.1097/01.mcp.0000181475.85187.ed] "B. cepacia" is an important human pathogen which most often causes pneumoniain immunocompromised individuals with underlying lung disease (such as cystic fibrosisor chronic granulomatous disease).cite journal |author=Mahenthiralingam E, Urban T, Goldberg J |title=The multifarious, multireplicon Burkholderia cepacia complex |journal=Nat Rev Microbiol |volume=3 |issue=2 |pages=144–56 |year=2005 |pmid=15643431 |doi=10.1038/nrmicro1085]
BCC organisms are typically found in water and soil and can survive for prolonged periods in moist environments. Person-to-person spread has been documented; as a result, many hospitals, clinics, and camps for patients with cystic fibrosis have enacted strict isolation precautions for those infected with BCC. Infected individuals are often treated in a separate area than noninfected patients to limit spread, since BCC infection can lead to a rapid decline in
lungfunction and result in death.
Diagnosis of BCC involves isolation of bacteria from
sputumcultures. BCC organisms are naturally resistant to many common antibioticsincluding aminoglycosidesand polymyxin B.cite journal |author=McGowan J |title=Resistance in nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria: multidrug resistance to the maximum |journal=Am J Infect Control |volume=34 |issue=5 Suppl 1 |pages=S29–37; discussion S64–73 |year=2006 |pmid=16813979 |doi=10.1016/j.ajic.2006.05.226] The bacteria is so hardy that it has been found to persist in betadine (a common topical antiseptic).cite journal |author=Anderson R, Vess R, Panlilio A, Favero M |title=Prolonged survival of "Pseudomonas cepacia" in commercially manufactured povidone-iodine |journal=Appl Environ Microbiol |volume=56 |issue=11 |pages=3598–600 |year=1990 |pmid=2268166] Treatment typically includes multiple antibiotics and may include ceftazidime, doxycycline, piperacillin, chloramphenicol, and co-trimoxazole. In April 2007 Researchers from the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry at The University of Western Ontario, working with a group from Edinburgh, announced they had discovered a way to kill the organism. [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Key Found to Kill Cystic Fibrosis Superbug | date=2007-04-25 | publisher= | url =http://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life_sciences/report-83296.html | work =Innovations Report | pages = | accessdate = 2007-04-26 | language = ] [cite journal |author=Ortega XP |title=A putative gene cluster for aminoarabinose biosynthesis is essential for Burkholderia cenocepacia viability |month=May | year=2007 |publisher=American Society for Microbiology |url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=17337576 |work=J Bacteriol |pages=3639–3644 |accessdate = 2007-12-08 |language = |pmid=17337576 |doi=10.1128/JB.00153-07. |doi_brokendate=2008-06-23 ]
"B.cepacia" was discovered by
Walter Burkholderin 1949 as the culprit of onion skin rot, and first described as a human pathogenin the 1950s.cite journal | author = Burkholder WH | title = Sour skin, a bacterial rot of onion bulbs | journal = Phytopathology | year = 1950 | volume = 40| pages = 115–7] In the 1980s, it was first recognized in individuals with cystic fibrosis, and outbreaks were associated with a 35% death rate. "Burkholderia cepacia" has a large genome, containing twice the amount of genetic material as "E. coli".
* [http://web.umr.edu/~microbio/BIO221_2000/Burkholderia_cepacia.html UMR: "Burkholderia cepacia"]
* [http://www.cff.org/research/ResearchCenters/index.cfm?state=MI CFF: Research]
* [http://pathema.tigr.org/tigr-scripts/Burkholderia/PathemaHomePage.cgi Pathema-"Burkholderia" Resource]
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