IUPAC_name = 5,6,6a,7-Tetrahydro-6-methyl-4H- dibenzo [de,g] quinolin-10,11-diol (?)

CAS_number = 41372-20-7
ATC_prefix = G04
ATC_suffix = BE07
ATC_supplemental = ATC|N04|BC07
PubChem = 6005
smiles = C1=C(C(=C2C(=C1)CC4C3=C2C=CC=C3CCN4C)O)O
DrugBank = APRD00531
C=17 | H=17 | N=1 | O=2
molecular_weight = 267.322 g/mol
bioavailability = 100% following sc injection
protein_bound = ~50%
metabolism = hepatic
elimination_half-life = 40 minutes (range 30-60 minutes)
pregnancy_category =
legal_status = II (California), non-scheduled (Rest of USA)
routes_of_administration = sc

Apomorphine is a type of dopaminergic agonist (agonist of the D1 and D2 type dopamine receptors) [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6SYT-488NPKD-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=8a6affaaa6a82e51aaa556dc8510e8a6] [http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/full/20/8/1263] , a morphine derivative (but does not actually contain morphine, or bind to opioid receptors). Apomorphine is a relatively non-selective dopamine receptor agonist, having possible slightly higher affinity for D2-like dopamine receptors.

Historically, apomorphine has been tried for a variety of uses including psychiatric treatment of homosexuality in the early 20th century. Currently, apomorphine is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and (under the name Uprima) of erectile dysfunction. It was also successfully used in the treatment of heroin addiction, a purpose for which it was championed by the author William S. Burroughs. It is a potent emetic (i.e. it induces vomiting) and should not be administered without an antiemetic such as domperidone. The emetic properties of apomorphine are exploited in veterinary medicine to induce therapeutic emesis in canines that have recently ingested toxic or foreign substances.

For treatment of erectile dysfunction, it is believed that dopamine receptors in the hypothalamic region of the brain are the main target, as although dopamine receptors in the penis do facilitate erection, they do so far more weakly than those in the brain. [cite journal | author = Matsumoto K, Yoshida M, Andersson K, Hedlund P | title = Effects in vitro and in vivo by apomorphine in the rat corpus cavernosum. | journal = Br J Pharmacol | volume = 146 | issue = 2 | pages = 259–67 | year = 2005 | pmid = 16025145 | doi = 10.1038/sj.bjp.0706317]

Apomorphine is colourless as a liquid but stains green. Therefore care must be taken to avoid splashes. Apormophine does not remain stable for more than 24 hours in a plastic container, so syringes are discarded if not used within 24 hours.

Use in Parkinson's disease

First mooted as a treatment for Parkinson's disease as early as 1951, [cite journal | author = Schwab R, Amador L, Lettvin J | title = Apomorphine in Parkinson's disease. | journal = Trans Am Neurol Assoc | volume = 56 | issue = | pages = 251–3 | year = | pmid = 14913646] its clinical use was first reported in 1970 by Cotzias et al, [cite journal | author = Cotzias G, Papavasiliou P, Fehling C, Kaufman B, Mena I | title = Similarities between neurologic effects of L-dopa and of apomorphine. | journal = N Engl J Med | volume = 282 | issue = 1 | pages = 31–3 | year = 1970 | pmid = 4901383] although its emetic properties and short half-life made oral use impractical. A later study found that combining the drug with the antiemetic domperidone improved results significantly. [cite journal | author = Corsini G, Del Zompo M, Gessa G, Mangoni A | title = Therapeutic efficacy of apomorphine combined with an extracerebral inhibitor of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease. | journal = Lancet | volume = 1 | issue = 8123 | pages = 954–6 | year = 1979 | pmid = 87620 | doi = 10.1016/S0140-6736(79)91725-2]

Therapeutic use in Parkinson's disease is effective because of the drug's strong dopaminergic action, with a rapid effect (within 3-20 minutes of injection) but a brief duration.cite journal | author = Chaudhuri K, Clough C | title = Subcutaneous apomorphine in Parkinson's disease. | journal = BMJ | volume = 316 | issue = 7132 | pages = 641 | year = 1998 | pmid = 9522772| url=http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/316/7132/641#B2 While apomorphine can be used in combination with l-dopa, the intention is usually to wean patients off of this, as by this stage they will probably be experiencing a great deal of dopa-induced dyskinesias and "off" periods. Following a successful apomorphine challenge, training of patient and caregiver, and careful dose titration, there is no reason why an apomorphine pump can not be an effective monotherapy.

Erectile dysfunction

Apomorphine hydrochloride (trade name "Uprima") is used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (male impotence). It is its mode of stimulating dopamine in the brain which is believed to enhance the sexual response. It was found to be of poor efficacyPharmaceutical Business Review, [http://www.pharmaceutical-business-review.com/article_news.asp?guid=9E21D580-0AFE-4225-8358-2D091ABEEF38 "Study shows Abbott's Uprima ineffective for most UK patients"] ] in a large-scale study by Researchers at the UK's Drug Safety Research Unit and University of Portsmouth and discontinued in the UK in January 2006. Around 65-70% of doctors felt it was ineffective, with 60% of over 11,000 patients (avg age 61) discontinuing in month 1 and a further 23% in month 2. [ [http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=63038 MedicineNet study review] ]


External links

* [http://pdsp.cwru.edu/pdsp.php PDSP Ki database]
* - Detailed usage guide for Apomorphine pumps for Parkinson's

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Apomorphine — Général Nom IUPAC (R) dihydroxy 10,11 méthyl 6 tétrahydro 5,6,6A,7 4H dibenzo(DE,G) quinoleine chlorhydrate …   Wikipédia en Français

  • apomorphine — [ apomɔrfin ] n. f. • 1872; du gr. apo « dérivé de » et morphine ♦ Chim., pharm. Dérivé de synthèse de la morphine par perte d une molécule d eau. Le chlorhydrate d apomorphine est un vomitif utilisé dans les cures de désintoxication alcoolique.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • apomorphine — [ap΄ō môr′fēn΄, ap΄əmôr′fēn΄] n. a crystalline alkaloid, C17H17NO2, produced by synthesis from morphine: used as an emetic and expectorant …   English World dictionary

  • Apomorphine — Apomorphia Ap o*mor phi*a, Apomorphine Ap o*mor phine, n. [Pref. apo + morphia, morphine.] (Chem.) A crystalline alkaloid obtained from morphia. It is a powerful emetic. [1913 Webster] || …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • apomorphine — apo·mor·phine .ap ə mȯr .fēn n a crystalline morphine derivative C17H17NO2 that is a dopamine agonist and is administered as the hydrochloride for its powerful emetic action * * * n. a dopamine receptor agonist used in the treatment of… …   Medical dictionary

  • apomorphine — n. a dopamine receptor agonist used in the treatment of Parkinson s disease that is poorly controlled by levodopa. It is given by subcutaneous injection or infusion; side effects include involuntary movements and instability of posture.… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • apomorphine — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary Date: 1888 a crystalline morphine derivative C17H17NO2 that is a dopamine agonist and is administered in the form of its hydrochloride for its powerful emetic action …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • apomorphine — /ap euh mawr feen, fin/, n. Pharm. an alkaloid, C17H17NO2, derived from morphine and used as a fast acting emetic. Also, apomorphin /ap euh mawr fin/. [1885 90; APO + MORPHINE] * * * …   Universalium

  • apomorphine — noun A particular narcotic used in the treatment of Parkinsons disease …   Wiktionary

  • apomorphine — n. chemical compound derived from morphine …   English contemporary dictionary

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