IUPAC_name = 5,6,6a,7-Tetrahydro-6-methyl-4H- dibenzo [de,g] quinolin-10,11-diol (?)
CAS_number = 41372-20-7
ATC_prefix = G04
ATC_suffix = BE07
ATC_supplemental = ATC|N04|BC07
PubChem = 6005
smiles = C1=C(C(=C2C(=C1)CC4C3=C2C=CC=C3CCN4C)O)O
DrugBank = APRD00531
C=17 | H=17 | N=1 | O=2
molecular_weight = 267.322 g/mol
bioavailability = 100% following sc injection
protein_bound = ~50%
elimination_half-life = 40 minutes (range 30-60 minutes)
legal_status = II (California), non-scheduled (Rest of USA)
routes_of_administration = sc
Apomorphine is a type of
dopaminergic agonist(agonist of the D1 and D2 type dopamine receptors) [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6SYT-488NPKD-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=8a6affaaa6a82e51aaa556dc8510e8a6] [http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/full/20/8/1263] , a morphinederivative (but does not actually contain morphine, or bind to opioid receptors). Apomorphine is a relatively non-selective dopamine receptor agonist, having possible slightly higher affinity for D2-like dopamine receptors.
Historically, apomorphine has been tried for a variety of uses including psychiatric treatment of homosexuality in the early 20th century. Currently, apomorphine is used in the treatment of
Parkinson's diseaseand (under the name Uprima) of erectile dysfunction. It was also successfully used in the treatment of heroin addiction, a purpose for which it was championed by the author William S. Burroughs. It is a potent emetic(i.e. it induces vomiting) and should not be administered without an antiemeticsuch as domperidone. The emetic properties of apomorphine are exploited in veterinary medicine to induce therapeutic emesis in canines that have recently ingested toxic or foreign substances.
For treatment of erectile dysfunction, it is believed that dopamine receptors in the
hypothalamicregion of the brainare the main target, as although dopamine receptors in the penisdo facilitate erection, they do so far more weakly than those in the brain. [cite journal | author = Matsumoto K, Yoshida M, Andersson K, Hedlund P | title = Effects in vitro and in vivo by apomorphine in the rat corpus cavernosum. | journal = Br J Pharmacol | volume = 146 | issue = 2 | pages = 259–67 | year = 2005 | pmid = 16025145 | doi = 10.1038/sj.bjp.0706317]
Apomorphine is colourless as a liquid but stains green. Therefore care must be taken to avoid splashes. Apormophine does not remain stable for more than 24 hours in a plastic container, so syringes are discarded if not used within 24 hours.
Use in Parkinson's disease
First mooted as a treatment for Parkinson's disease as early as 1951, [cite journal | author = Schwab R, Amador L, Lettvin J | title = Apomorphine in Parkinson's disease. | journal = Trans Am Neurol Assoc | volume = 56 | issue = | pages = 251–3 | year = | pmid = 14913646] its clinical use was first reported in 1970 by Cotzias et al, [cite journal | author = Cotzias G, Papavasiliou P, Fehling C, Kaufman B, Mena I | title = Similarities between neurologic effects of L-dopa and of apomorphine. | journal = N Engl J Med | volume = 282 | issue = 1 | pages = 31–3 | year = 1970 | pmid = 4901383] although its emetic properties and short half-life made oral use impractical. A later study found that combining the drug with the
antiemetic domperidoneimproved results significantly. [cite journal | author = Corsini G, Del Zompo M, Gessa G, Mangoni A | title = Therapeutic efficacy of apomorphine combined with an extracerebral inhibitor of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease. | journal = Lancet | volume = 1 | issue = 8123 | pages = 954–6 | year = 1979 | pmid = 87620 | doi = 10.1016/S0140-6736(79)91725-2]
Therapeutic use in Parkinson's disease is effective because of the drug's strong dopaminergic action, with a rapid effect (within 3-20 minutes of injection) but a brief duration.cite journal | author = Chaudhuri K, Clough C | title = Subcutaneous apomorphine in Parkinson's disease. | journal = BMJ | volume = 316 | issue = 7132 | pages = 641 | year = 1998 | pmid = 9522772| url=http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/316/7132/641#B2 While apomorphine can be used in combination with
l-dopa, the intention is usually to wean patients off of this, as by this stage they will probably be experiencing a great deal of dopa-induced dyskinesias and "off" periods. Following a successful apomorphine challenge, training of patient and caregiver, and careful dose titration, there is no reason why an apomorphine pump can not be an effective monotherapy.
Apomorphine hydrochloride (trade name "Uprima") is used in the treatment of
erectile dysfunction(male impotence). It is its mode of stimulating dopaminein the brain which is believed to enhance the sexual response. It was found to be of poor efficacyPharmaceutical Business Review, [http://www.pharmaceutical-business-review.com/article_news.asp?guid=9E21D580-0AFE-4225-8358-2D091ABEEF38 "Study shows Abbott's Uprima ineffective for most UK patients"] ] in a large-scale study by Researchers at the UK's Drug Safety Research Unitand University of Portsmouthand discontinued in the UK in January 2006. Around 65-70% of doctors felt it was ineffective, with 60% of over 11,000 patients (avg age 61) discontinuing in month 1 and a further 23% in month 2. [ [http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=63038 MedicineNet study review] ]
* [http://pdsp.cwru.edu/pdsp.php PDSP Ki database]
* - Detailed usage guide for Apomorphine pumps for Parkinson's
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