Phonetics (from the Greek φωνή ("phonê") "sound" or "voice") is the study of the physical sounds of human speech. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds (
phones), and the processes of their physiological production, auditory reception, and neurophysiological perception.
Phonetics was studied as early as 2,500 years ago in ancient India, with Unicode|
Pāṇini's account of the place and manner of articulationof consonants in his 5th century BCtreatise on Sanskrit. The major Indic alphabets today order their consonants according to Unicode|Pāṇini's classification.
Types of phonetics
Phonetics as a research discipline has three main branches:
articulatory phoneticsis concerned with the articulation of speech: The position, shape, and movement of "articulators" or speech organs, such as the lips, tongue, and vocal folds.
acoustic phoneticsis concerned with acousticsof speech: The properties of the sound waves, such as their frequencyand harmonics.
auditory phoneticsis concerned with speech perception: How sound is received by the inner ear and perceived by the brain.
It also includes a fourth branch:
*forensic phonetics is the use of phonetics (the science of speech) for forensic (legal) purposes.
Phonetics and phonology
In contrast to phonetics,
phonologyis the study of language-specific systems and patterns of sound and gesture, relating such concerns with other levels and aspects of language. While phonology is grounded in phonetics, it has emerged as a distinct area of linguistics, dealing with abstract systems of sounds and gestural units (e.g, phoneme, features, mora, etc.) and their variants (e.g., allophones), the distinctive properties (features) which form the basis of meaningful contrast between these units, and their classification into natural classes based on shared behavior and phonological processes. Phonetics tends to deal more with the physical properties of sounds and the physiological aspects of speech production and perception. It deals less with how sounds are patterned to encode meaning in language (though overlap in theorizing, research and clinical applications are possible).
List of phonetics topics
Biometric word list
Phonetics departments at universities
* NATO Phonetic Alphabet
External links and references
* [http://voicespec.com/board.cgi?id=test1 Comparative phonetics]
* [http://www.phonetique.uqam.ca Phonetics Laboratory of the Université du Québec à Montréal.]
* [http://www.phonetique.info the Web Site of the Phonetic Sciences Laboratory of the Université de Montréal.]
* [http://www.isphs.org/main.htm The International Society of Phonetic Sciences (ISPhS)]
* [http://www.personal.rdg.ac.uk/~llsroach/encyc.pdf A little encyclopedia of phonetics] , Peter Roach, Professor of Phonetics, University of Reading, UK. (pdf)
* [http://www.ling.upenn.edu/courses/Summer_2004/ling001/lecture2.html The sounds and sound patterns of language] U Penn
* [http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/ UCLA lab data]
* [http://archive.phonetics.ucla.edu/ UCLA Phonetics Lab Archive]
* [http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/phonetik/EGG/page1.htm EGG and Voice Quality] (electroglottography, phonation, etc.)
* [http://web.uvic.ca/ling/resources/ipa/handbook.htm IPA handbook]
* [http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/fonts.htm IPA-SAM Phonetic Fonts]
* [http://www.ling.lu.se/research/speechtutorial/tutorial.html Speech Analysis Tutorial]
* [http://www.uni-erfurt.de/sprachwissenschaft/personal/lehmann/CL_Lehr/PhonPhon/Phon_Index.html Lecture materials in German on phonetics & phonology, university of Erfurt]
* [http://sail.usc.edu/span/video.php Real-time MRI video of the articulation of speech sounds, from the USC Speech Articulation and kNowledge (SPAN) Group]
* [http://www.ic.arizona.edu/~lsp/Phonetics.html Beginner's course in phonetics, with some exercises]
* [http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/ Praat - Phonetic analysis software]
* [http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/johnm/sid/sidhome.htm SID- Speech Internet Dictionary]
* [http://www.unc.edu/~jlsmith/pht-url.html Extensive collection of phonetics resources on the Web] (University of North Carolina)
* Abercrombie, D. (1967). "Elements of General Phonetics". Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh.
* Ashby, Michael & Maidment, John. (2005). "Introducing Phonetic Science". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80882-0 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-00496-9 (pbk).
* Catford, J. C. (1977). "Fundamental problems in phonetics". Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-32520-X.
* Clark, John; & Yallop, Colin. (1995). "An introduction to phonetics and phonology" (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19452-5.
*Gussenhoven, C & Broeders, A. (1997). "English pronunciation for student teachers". Wolters-Noordhoff BV Groningen, the Netherlands. ISBN 90 01 16703 9
* Hardcastle, William J.; & Laver, John (Eds.). (1997). "The handbook of phonetic sciences". Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-18848-7.
* Ladefoged, Peter. (1982). "A course in phonetics" (2nd ed.). London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
* Ladefoged, Peter. (2003). "Phonetic data analysis: An introduction to fieldwork and instrumental techniques". Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-23269-9 (hbk); ISBN 0-631-23270-2 (pbk).
* Maddieson, Ian. (1984). "Patterns of sounds". Cambridge studies in speech science and communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
*Laver, J. (1994)."Principles of Phonetics". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
* Pike, Kenneth L. (1943). "Phonetics: A critical analysis of phonetic theory and a technic for the practical description of sounds". Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
* Pisoni, David B.; & Remez, Robert E. (Eds.). (2004). "The handbook of speech perception". Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-22927-2.
* Rogers, Henry. (2000). "The Sounds of Language: An Introduction to Phonetics". Harlow, Essex: Pearson. ISBN 0-582-38182-7.
* Stevens, Kenneth N. (1998). "Acoustic phonetics". Current studies in linguistics (No. 30). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-19404-X.
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