Ethnic group

related=Turkish people and other Turkic peoples

The Yörük, also Yürük or Yuruk ( _tr. yörük; Bulgarian "юрук", plural "юруци"), are a Turkish people ultimately of Oghuz descent, some of whom are still nomadic, primarily inhabiting the mountains of Anatolia and partly Balkan peninsula. [Vakalopoulos, Apostolos Euangelou. " Origins of the Greek Nation: The Byzantine Period, 1204-1461". Rutgers University Press, 1970. [http://books.google.com/books?id=y_ceAAAAMAAJ&dq=kailar+yuruks&hl=tr&pgis=1 "web link"] , [http://books.google.com/books?lr=&hl=tr&q=kailar+yuruks "p. 163"] , [http://books.google.com/books?hl=tr&q=%22On+the+Balkan%22+%22who+had+settled%22+Yuruks&btnG=Kitaplar%C4%B1+Ara "p. 330"] ] [Marushiakova, Elena & Popov, Vesselin. "Gypsies in the Ottoman Empire: A Contribution to the History of the Balkans". Univ of Hertfordshire Press, 2001. [http://books.google.com/books?id=VDm769--fZQC&pg=PA35&dq=yuruks+anatolia+balkans&hl=tr&sig=nUJojlyt5pGvKy8IrnXZVie2ens "page 35"] ] Their name is generally accepted to derive from the Turkish verb yürü- ("yürümek" in infinitive), which means "to walk", with the word "Yörük" designating "those who walk, walkers". [Türk Dil Kurumu - "TDK Online Dictionary". [http://www.tdk.gov.tr/TR/SozBul.aspx?F6E10F8892433CFFAAF6AA849816B2EF4376734BED947CDE&Kelime=y%c3%b6r%c3%bck "yörük"] , [http://www.tdk.gov.tr/TR/SozBul.aspx?F6E10F8892433CFFAAF6AA849816B2EF4376734BED947CDE&Kelime=y%c3%bcr%c3%bck "yürük"] ]

Yörüks in Europe

The Yörük to this day appear as a distinct segment of the population of Macedonia and Thrace where they settled as early as the 14th century.Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition - "Macedonia:" [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Macedonia#Races "Races"] ] While today the Yörük are increasingly settled, many of them still maintain their nomadic lifestyle, breeding goats and sheep in the Pindus (Epirus, Greece and southern Albania), the Šar Mountains (Republic of Macedonia), the Pirin and Rhodope Mountains (Bulgaria) and Dobrudja.Fact|date=November 2007 An earlier offshoot of the Yörüks, the Kailars or Kayılar Turks were amongst the first Turkish colonists in Europe, ("Kailar" or "Kayılar" being the Turkish name for the Greek town of Ptolemaida which took its current name in 1928 [Ptolemaida.net - "History of Ptolemaida" [http://www.ptolemaida.net/p-istoria.html "web page"] ] ) formerly inhabiting parts of the Greek regions of Thessaly and Macedonia. Settled Yörüks could be found until 1923, especially near and in the town of Kozani. The Yörüks are credited with the conversion to Islam in the 18th century, after a period of cohabitation, of a part of the native Meglen Vlachs of Greece who in 1923 were expelled to Turkey under the terms of the population exchange between the two countries.Fact|date=November 2007

Yörüks and Sarakatsani

Their nomadic way of life and the fact that they spread through the Balkans led Arnold van Gennep to try and establish a connection between the Yörüks and the Sarakatsani or Karakachans of Greece. However, the Sarakatsani when for the first time mentioned under this name were already Orthodox Christians and speaking a Greek dialect. While there are no actual linguistic or religious links to the Yörük, there are nevertheless connections and similarities as to the transhumant, nomadic way of life.Kavadias, Georges B. "Pasteurs-Nomades Mediterraneens: Les Saracatsans de Grece". Gauthier-Villars, 1965. [http://books.google.com/books?id=ID4BAAAAMAAJ&q=Les+Sarakatsans+gennep+turcs&dq=Les+Sarakatsans+gennep+turcs&pgis=1 "page 6"] , [http://books.google.com/books?spell=1&q=Les+Sarakatsans+gennep+turcs&btnG=Search+Books "link"] ] According to Gennep both of these pastoral ethnic groups may ultimately share a common Turkic ancestry.

Kailar Yörüks

A particular puzzle constitute the above mentioned Kailar Turks, who formerly inhabited parts of Thessaly and Macedonia (especially near the town of Kozani and modern Ptolemaida). These Turks, associated often by scholars with the Yörüks too, whose splinter group they are generally recognised to be, were a little group of semi-settled cattle breeders -who adopted Christianity in order to avoid expulsion after Thessaly became part of Greece in 1881Fact|date=February 2007 respectively Southern Macedonia in 1913. These Kailar Turks are known also by the alternate name of Konariotes. The Kailar Turks, especially those of the Erdemuş village of Kailar claim descent from what they describe the "noble, sober Yörükhan family" who hail in turn from the so-called Pervaneoğulları 'timariot' according to the Ottoman archives.

Yörüks in Anatolia and the Middle East

The Yörüks of Anatolia are often called by historians and ethnologists by the additional appellative 'Yörük Turcoman' or 'Turkmens'. In Turkey's general parlance today, the terms "Türkmen" and "Yörük" indicate the gradual degrees of preserved attachment with the former semi-nomadic lifestyle of the populations concerned, with the "Türkmen" now leading a fully sedentary life, while keeping parts of their heritage through folklore and traditions, in arts like carpet-weaving, with the continued habit of keeping a "yayla" house for the summers, sometimes in relation to the Alevi community etc. and with Yörüks maintaining a yet stronger association with nomadism. These names ultimately hint to their Oghuz Turkish roots. The remaining transhumant or "true" Yörüks of today's Anatolian region traditionally use the camel as means of transportation though these are more and more replaced by trucks.

Clans, related tribes and offshoots

Clans closely related to the Yörüks are scattered throughout the Anatolian peninsula and beyond its boundaries, particularly around the chain of Taurus Mountains and further east around the shores of the Caspian sea. Of the Turcomans of Iran, the Yomuts come the closest to the definition of the Yörüks. An interesting offshoot of the Yörük mass are the Tahtadji of the mountainous regions of Western Anatolia who, as their name implies, have been occupied with forestry work and wood craftsmanship for centuries, although they share similar traditions (with markedly matriarchal tones in their society structure) with their other Yörük cousins. The Qashqai people of southern Iran (around Shiraz), and the Chepni of Turkey's Black Sea region are also worthy of mention due to their shared characteristics. A considerable number of the original Turkish population of Northern Cyprus are also of Yörük descent.


ee also

* Kailar
* Qashqai
* Serik; a town in Turkey's Antalya Province
* Serinhisar
* Turkmen people
* Yaylag



* Brailsford, H.N. "Macedonia: Its Races and Their Future". Methuen & Co., London, 1906. [http://www.promacedonia.org/en/hb/hb_4_6.html "Kailar Turks"]
* Cribb, Roger. "Nomads in Archaeology". Cambridge University Press, 2004. [http://books.google.com/books?id=TFnE3YQ6VjsC&pg=PP1&dq=Nomads+in+Archaeology&sig=F-KD57LpUwUYIogpk9SQQAJWp6Y "web page"]

External links

* [http://www.yorukler.com Web portal for information sharing on and between Yörüks]
* [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/turkc-l/message/97 The disappearing Yörük and their music]
* [http://www.vlachophiles.net/conf.htm Vlach, Yuruk and Sarakatsani confluences in the Balkans]
* [http://www.yorturkvakfi.com Foundation of Yörüks in Turkey]
* [http://www.sarimazi.bel.tr A Yörük town in Adana province on the south coast of Turkey] tr icon

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Yörük — (türkisch, pl. Yörükler oder Yürükler, Eigenbezeichnung: Yörüglää, im Deutschen Yörüken, Yörücken, Yürücken oder Jürücken) werden die Angehörigen einer Gruppe von oghusisch türkischen Stämmen oder die Stämme selber genannt, die heute… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • YÖRÜK — Groupe nomade de Turquie. Les Yörük ou I r k (le terme signifie «ceux qui marchent») se répartissent dans trois régions: les tribus de l’ancienne Pamphylie entre Antalya et Gazipasa, qui estivent dans le Taurus; les tribus de la Troade, qui… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Yörük — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar al aut …   Wikipedia Español

  • Yörük — is., k ü, öz. Hayvancılıkla geçinen, Toroslarda yaşayan göçebe Türk oymağı, Yürük Birleşik Sözler Yörük çadırı …   Çağatay Osmanlı Sözlük

  • Yörük Ali Efe — (1895 1951) was a Zeybek leader in the late periods of Ottoman Empire and later an officer in Turkish Army during the Turkish Independence War. He was an important leader of Kuvayi Milliye in Ege. After the declaration of republic he resigned… …   Wikipedia

  • Yoruk Park Pension — (Чирали,Турция) Категория отеля: Адрес: Ulupinar Koyu, 07980 Чирали, Турция …   Каталог отелей

  • Yörük Ali Efe — Yörük Ali Efe, né en 1895 à Aydin et mort le 23 septembre 1951 à Bursa, est un combattant de la guerre d indépendance turque (1919 1923) et un officier militaire turc. Portail de la Turquie …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Yörük-Türkmenen — Dieser Artikel oder Abschnitt ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen (Literatur, Webseiten oder Einzelnachweisen) versehen. Die fraglichen Angaben werden daher möglicherweise demnächst gelöscht. Hilf Wikipedia, indem du die Angaben recherchierst und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • yörük — sf. 1) Yürük 2) is., tar. Yürük …   Çağatay Osmanlı Sözlük

  • yoruk — gidiş, huy, I, 27bkz: borık, yorık …   Divan-i Luqat-i it-Türk Dizini

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”