- Messianic religious practice
This article describes certain religious practices common in
Messianic Judaism. Messianic religious practices are sometimes called "Messianic halakha".
Messianic Judaism generally recognizes Scripture as a continuum that builds on its foundation, not a book divided into two sections, one of which is "old", the other "new". The entire book is seen as vibrant and relevant to modern life..
Messianic Judaism's position on the covenant with Abraham is that it is still in force, and most believe that the New Covenant foretold in Jeremiah does not replace the old, and the false idea of Jesus attempting to replace the Torah would contradict various statements in the Torah itself that such a covenant is non-negotiably perpetual, disqualifying him from Messiahship. A handful of recently-founded organizations such as Messianic Bureau International, First Fruits of Zion, the Coalition of Torah Observant Messianic Congregations, and the Union of Torah Observant Ministries seek to provide a more Torah-observant platform for Messianic Judaism.
A majority of Messianics consider the full canon of the
Bibleto include the same books found in ProtestantBibles, although this is a matter of few debate in the Messianic community, especially in reference to Paul's writings.
Like many Protestants, most (though not all) Messianic Jews consider the additional books referred to as the
Apocryphaor the Deuterocannonical texts to be of historical value but not divinely inspired, unlike Roman Catholicismand the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Although most Messianics do not consider the
Oral Torah"divinely inspired", an increasing number nevertheless are showing respect for halakha, and some even consider it binding. There are some, especially those who have come out of Protestant churches, who maintain a presumption of sola scriptura and have a fear of halakha. However, it is incorrect to assume that all Messianics share this fear of oral Torah. There are those who look to the Talmud and rabbinical interpretations of Israel for guidance in a fuller expression of obedience to Torah. If Messianic Judaism is indeed a Judaism, it stands to reason that it shares community with all Jews in its acceptance of standards and interpretations. Messianics who honor halakhah point out that Deuteronomy 17 instructs not only obedience to Torah, but also to the Judges we go to for Torah interpretation, to "do everything they direct you to do. Act according to the law they teach you and the decisions they give you. Do not turn aside from what they tell you, to the right or to the left." Yeshua backs up the Torah teachers among the Pharisees in this authority in Matthew 23, "The teachers of the law and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat. So you must obey them and do everything they tell you."
In light of this, the Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council (affiliated with the Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations) has published its standards--a tremendous forward movement for Messianic Judaism. The recommendations of the MJRC may be found at http://www.ourrabbis.org/main/component/option,com_frontpage/Itemid,1/
The Messianic Jewish view of baptism is much more closely aligned with the traditional Jewish
mikvah. Highly prevalent is the belief that John the Immerser was not founding some new religious practice but was simply performing the very ancient Jewish ritual of immersion in water ( tevilah). Due to a lack of resources, most Messianic congregations are simply not able to observe the various water purifications commanded in the Torah such as the one required after a woman's menstruation.
Torahscrolls are used in Shabbat services if the congregation has a scroll. Like Rabbinic Jewish synagogues, most Messianic congregations and synagogues hope to obtain a Torah scroll at some point, but many are small and lack the funds to afford one. Messianic Jewish congregations observe the traditional Jewish annual reading cycle for Torah and Haftorah, although a minority may try to practice the more ancient three-year cycle that would've been the norm in the 1st Century. They also read accompanying portions from the B'rit Chadasha (Hebrew for Renewed Covenant, commonly recognized as the New Testament). David Stern's arrangement for these readings is popular. In strongly Jewish messianic synagogues, the liturgy is straight from the Siddur, indistinguishable from that of any other synagogue, save for the addition of a reading from the B'rit Chadashah (New Covenant).
Jewish song and prayer
Messianics recite or cant traditional Jewish prayers such as:
* "Adon Olam"
* "Avinu Malkenu"
* "Birkhat-HaKohanim", also called the
Priestly Blessingor the Aaronic Benediction.
*B'nay mitzvah are provided for boys and b'tay mitzvah for girls.
Brit milah(covenant of circumcision) is performed for Jewish male babies.
Worship services are generally held on Friday evenings ("Erev Shabbat") and Saturday mornings, as Messianics recognize that the Sabbath is an "eternal covenant" between God and the children of Israel (Exodus 31:16).
The recommendations of the Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council regarding Shabbat may be found at http://www.ourrabbis.org/main/content/view/16/30/
Messianics observe Biblical festivals and other days significant in Jewish history, including:
Sukkot(the Feast of Tabernacles)
The recommendations of the Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council on Holidays may be found at http://www.ourrabbis.org/main/content/view/19/33/
Celebration of holidays such as
Christmasand Easterare not encouraged by Messianic Judaism, although it is very common for Messianics to have Christian relatives. The main issue with Christian holidays are the alleged pagan origins and the lack of apparent basis in Torah. As such many Messianics feel that these holidays lack significance to God. The same argument applies to Sabbath vs. Sunday worship. Those that practice non-Jewish holidays, to preserve family unity for example, generally do so in a secular manner.
The mainstream position within Messianic Judaism on keeping kosher is that the practice is commanded in the Torah and thus is to be observed. However, the understanding that Messianic Judaism is a Judaism along with a growing respect in the movement for the development of Oral Torah has led to the addition of such things as the separation of meat and dairy.
The recommendations of the Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council on Kashrut may be found at http://www.ourrabbis.org/main/content/view/20/34/
The practice of "Gentiles" keeping kosher depends on the Messianic congregation in question, although in many congregations the belief is that Gentiles should keep kosher.
Messianics display Menorot and Stars of David rather than
crosses. Many wear kippot (skullcaps), fringes on their clothing ( tzitzit) and, during Sabbath worship, a tallit(prayer shawl). Due to a love for the God of Israel, more 'Gentile' Messianics are wearing "tallit" and "tzitzyot" than previously, and are converting to a Torah pursuant life. Much like the rest of Judaism, the donning of tefillinvaries depending on the community.
Clergy ordained by a recognized seminary or organization are sometimes called "rabbis". A leader of a congregation that has not yet been ordained may be called a teacher, Congregational Leader, or a pastor.
Biblical personages are often referred to by their Hebrew names or presumed Hebrew names, e.g.:
* "Yeshua" - Jesus
* "Yochanan" - John
* "Sha'ul" - Paul/Saul of Tarsus
* "Shimon Kefa" - Simon Peter (Cefas)
* "Moshe" - Moses
* "Yesheyahu" - Isaiah
* "Miryam" - Mary
A few Messianics oppose being called “Christians”, and do not call themselves Christians. This is largely due to the fact that Messianic Judaism consciously differs from Christianity in various matters such as Torah observance, Hebraic mindset, and the general view that belief in Jesus as the
Jewish Messiahdoes not represent a departure from the synagogue.
Messianic Jews call their places of worship "congregations", "synagogues", "kehilat" (Hebrew for congregations), "fellowships", "shuls", or "Beit Knessets" rather than "churches."
Messianic congregations prefer usage of the original Hebrew for various names and places (or an English name that has less emotional baggage), not only for the
Tanakhbut for primarily New Testament names. This is to reinforce the Messianic Jewish Hebraic mindset but is also done so as not to offend Jews. Examples:
* "baptism" - immersion, going into the "
* "baptize" - immerse, go into the "
* "Christ" - Messiah, "Mashiach"
* "church (building)" - synagogue, Beit Knesset
* "church (people)" - congregation, "kehillah" (Hebrew for "congregation"), body of the Messiah, body of believers, followers of the Messiah, believers
* "church (services)" - "shul" (Yiddish for "school"), worship services
* "Cross" - tree, execution stake
* "crucifixion" - death, execution, nailed to a stake, hanging on a stake
* "evangelize" - tell the good news
* "gospel" - good news, or "Besorah"
* "Holy Spirit" - "Ruach HaKodesh"
* "Jesus" - "Yeshua"*
* "Jesus Christ" - "Yeshua haMashiach", Messiah Yeshua
* "John the Baptist" - "Yochanan haMatbil", John the Immerser
* "Lord" - "HaShem", "Adonai"
* "New Testament" - "Apostolic Writings", "Brit Chadashah" ("renewed covenant")
* "Old Testament" - "Tanakh"
* "Pentateuch" - Torah
:(Per Brown, a fourth Answering Jewish Objections volume is in preparation)
* Cohn-Sherbock, Rabbi Dan, ed.; "Voices of Messianic Judaism: Confronting Critical Issues Facing a Maturing Movement" pub. Messianic Jewish Resources International (June, 2001); ISBN 1-880226-93-6
* Feher, Shoshanah "Passing Over Easter: Constructing the Boundaries of Messianic Judaism" pub. AltaMira Press (1998); ISBN 0-7619-8953-6; ISBN 0-7619-8952-8
* Fischer*, Rabbi John, ed.; "The Enduring Paradox: Exploratory Essays in Messianic Judaism" pub. Messianic Jewish Resources International (July, 2000); ISBN 1-880226-90-1
(* Earned degrees: B.S. in Bible, M.S. in Communications, M.A. in New Testament, B.J.S. in Jewish Thought, Ph.D. in Education/Religion--Dissertation: "The Development of a Core Curriculum for a Messianic Jewish Yeshiva", Th.D. In Judaic Studies--Dissertation: "Messianic Services for Festivals and Holy Days")
* Goble, Phillip E., "Everything You Need To Grow A Messianic Synagogue," William Carey Library, (1974), ISBN 0-87808-421-5
* Juster, Daniel, Th.D.; "Growing to Maturity: A Messianic Jewish Guide" pub. Union of Messianic Congregations; 3rd ed. (1987); ISBN 0-9614555-0-0
* Kinzer, Mark Ph.D. (publisher: Brazos) "Postmissionary Messianic Judaism" (November 2005), ISBN 1-58743-152-1
* Stern, David H., Ph.D., M.Div. (publisher: Messianic Jewish Resources International):# "Messianic Jewish Manifesto" (May, 1988), ISBN 965-359-002-2:# "Jewish New Testament Commentary" (October, 1992), ISBN 965-359-011-1:# "Complete Jewish Bible" (June, 1998), ISBN 965-359-015-4
* [http://www.jerusalemcouncil.org The Jerusalem Council - Messianic Beit Din]
* [http://www.hashivenu.org/core_values.htm/ Hashivenu]
* [http://www.ourrabbis.org/main/component/option,com_frontpage/Itemid,1/ Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council]
* [http://rabbenu.blogspot.com/2006/10/cube-model-of-messianic-jewish.html/ Rabbenu: Cube Model of Messianic Jewish Spirituality]
* [http://www.umjc.net/ UMJC Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations]
* [http://www.sa-hebroots.com Scripture & Torah Study Resources]
* [http://www.messianicworship.com www.MessianicWorship.com] Free video clips of a Messianic worship service ref|prayer_over_kids
* [http://ctomc.com] The Coalition of Torah Observant Messianic Congregations
* [http://www.messianicjews.info/general/faq.html www.MessianicJews.Info FAQ]
* [http://www.DidGodLie.com/faq.html Did God Lie? FAQ]
* [http://www.lawus.com/messianic/sabbath.html Description of Messianic Sabbath Service]
*cite visual | crew=Baruch HaShem Messianic Synagogue |date= New release weekly | title= Video of Saturday morning worship service | medium=DVD, CD or audio cassette | location=Dallas, Texas, USA | distributor= [http://www.BaruchHaShemSynagogue.org Baruch HaShem Messianic Synagogue] (see Notes)
*cite visual | crew=Michael L. Brown, Ph.D.ref|Brown (Instructor) | date=2003 | title= Messianic Apologetics | medium=DVD (recorded course) | location=Dallas, Texas, USA | distributor= [http://www.BaruchHaShemSynagogue.org Baruch HaShem Messianic Synagogue] (see Notes)
*cite visual | crew=
Daniel C. Juster, Th.D.ref|Juster (Instructor) | date=2005 | title=Messianic Jewish Theology | medium=DVD (recorded course) | location=Dallas, Texas, USA | distributor= [http://www.BaruchHaShemSynagogue.org Baruch HaShem Messianic Synagogue] (see Notes)
*cite visual | crew=Seth Klayman, M.A.ref|Klayman (Instructor) | date=2004 | title=Israel in Jesus' Time | medium=DVD (recorded course) | location=Dallas, Texas, USA | distributor= [http://www.BaruchHaShemSynagogue.org Baruch HaShem Messianic Synagogue] (see Notes)
*cite visual | crew=Rabbi Russ Resnickref|Resnick (Instructor) | date=2004 | title= Messianic View of the B'rit Chadashah | medium=DVD (recorded course) | location=Dallas, Texas, USA | distributor= [http://www.BaruchHaShemSynagogue.org Baruch HaShem Messianic Synagogue] (see Notes)
*cite visual | crew=Rabbi Martin Waldmanref|Waldman (Instructor) | date=2005 | title= Messianic Overview of the
Tanakh] | medium=DVD (recorded course) | kocation=Dallas, Texas, USA | distributors= [http://www.BaruchHaShemSynagogue.org Baruch HaShem Messianic Synagogue] (see Notes)
# The "prayer over the children" excerpt is a bit atypical. The person who excerpted the videos indicates that since December 1999 when he started attending, this is the only time the prayer was done by a child rather than one of the congregation elders.
# Michael L. Brown, Ph.D. in
Semitic Languages, evangelist, Messianic apologist, author
# Seth Klayman, M.A., Ph.D. candidate in Judaic Studies,
Duke University; Congregational Leader, Sha'arei Shalom Messianic Congregation, Cary, NC
Daniel C. Juster, Th.D., Executive Director, [http://www.tikkunministries.org Tikkun Ministries International] ; author; former Congregation Leader, Beth Messiah Congregation, Gaithersburg, MD
# Russell Resnick, past president, [http://www.umjc.org Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations]
# Martin Waldman, Congregation Leader, [http://www.BaruchHaShemSynsgogue.org Baruch HaShem Messianic Synagogue] , past president, Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations
# Baruch HaShem Messianic Synagogue may be contacted by phone or mail or by email through its website but it does not sell the DVD sets through the website. Courses are 20 class hours, seminary level and require books not included with the course materials.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.