- Lead cooled fast reactor
The lead-cooled fast reactor is a
nuclear power Generation IV reactorthat features a fast neutronspectrum, molten leador lead-bismuth eutecticcoolant, and a closed fuel cycle. Options include a range of plant ratings, including a number of 50 to 150 MWe (megawatts electric) units featuring long-life, pre-manufactured cores. Plans include modular arrangements rated at 300 to 400 MW, and a large monolithic plant rated at 1,200 MW. The fuel is metal or nitride-based containing fertile uranium and transuranics. The LFR is cooled by natural convectionwith a reactor outlet coolant temperature of 550 °C, possibly ranging over 800 °C with advanced materials. Temperatures higher than 830 °C are high enough to support thermochemical production of hydrogen.
The reactors are intended for use in
nuclear power plants to produce nuclear powerfrom nuclear fuel.
Modular nuclear reactors
The LFR battery is a small factory-built turnkey plant operating on a closed fuel cycle with very long refueling interval (15 to 20 years) cassette cores or replaceable reactor modules. Its features are designed to meet market opportunities for electricity production on small grids, and for developing countries that may not wish to deploy an indigenous fuel cycle infrastructure to support their nuclear energy systems. The modular "battery" system (ie consisting of a number of identical elements, not "battery" in the sense of an electro-chemical energy storage system), is designed for
distributed generationof electricity and other energy products, including hydrogenand potable water.
LFR reactors OK-550 and BM-40A, capable of producing 155 MW of power, have been applied on soviet
Alfa class submarines. They were significantly lighter than typical water-cooled reactors and had an advantage of being capable to quickly switch between maximum power and minimum noise operation modes, but lacked reliability, as solidifying of lead-bismuth solution turned the reactor inoperable.
Fast breeder reactor
Fast neutron reactor
Sodium-cooled fast reactor
Integral Fast Reactor
Gas-cooled fast reactor
Generation IV reactor
* [http://neri.inel.gov/program_plans/pdfs/appendix_4.pdf Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor]
* [http://neri.inel.gov/universities_workshop/proceedings/pdfs/lfr.pdf Advanced reactor, fuel cycle,and energy products workshop for universities]
* [http://www.gen-4.org/Technology/systems/lfr.htm Generation IV International Forum LFR website]
* [http://www.bechtel.com/PDF/BIP/23378.pdf Heavy-Metal Aerosol Transport in a Lead-Bismuth Cooled Fast Reactor with In-Vessel Direct-Contact Steam Generation]
* [http://nuclear.inl.gov/gen4/lfr.shtml INL Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR)]
* [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V4D-4K2T5D7-5&_user=10&_coverDate=08%2F31%2F2006&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=df85272db6aac0f870d0004ed28d513e Comparison of sodium and lead-cooled fast reactors regarding reactor physics aspects, severe safety and economical issues]
* [http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NENP/NPTDS/Downloads/SMR_CRP1_SRWOSR/2006/RBEC-M%20Kurchatov%20Final.pdf RBEC-M Lead-Bismuth Cooled Fast Reactor Benchmarking Calculations]
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