Turkey, the city of Satala, according to the ancient geographers, was situated in a valley surrounded by mountains, a little north of the Euphrates, where the road from Trapezusto Samosatacrossed the boundary of the Roman Empire. Later it was connected with Nicopolisby two highways.
This site must have been occupied as early as the annexation of
Lesser Armeniaunder Vespasian. Trajanvisited it in 115and received the homage of the princes of the Caucasus and the Euxine. It was he doubtless who established there the Legio XV "Apollinaris" and began the construction of the great "castra stativa" (permanent camp) which it was to occupy till the 5th century. The town must have sprung up around this camp; in the time of Ptolemy it was already important. In 530the Persians were defeated under its walls. Justinian Iconstructed more powerful fortifications there, but these did not prevent Satala from being captured in 607-8 by the Persians.
Satala is now Sadak, a village of 500 inhabitants, in the vilayet of Gümüşhane (see
Gümüşhane Province). The remains of the camp still exist strewn with fragments of brick bearing the stamp of the legion; there are also the ruins of an aqueduct, of an amphitheatre and of Justinian's citadel; some Latin and Greek inscriptions, the latter Christian, have been discovered.
The Christians were numerous in the time of Diocletian.
Le Quien, "Oriens Christianus", I, 431, mentions seven of its bishops:
*Evethius, at Nicaea, 325
*Poemenius, about 378
The see is mentioned in the "
Notitiae episcopatuum" until the thirteenth century, and we know the name of the bishop, Cosmas, in 1256.
* [http://www.livius.org/sao-sd/satala/satala.html Livius.org: Satala]
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