- World view
A comprehensive world view (or worldview) is a term
calqued from the German word "Weltanschauung" (Audio-IPA|De-Weltanschauung.ogg| [ˈvɛlt.ʔanˌʃaʊ.ʊŋ] ) "Welt" is the German word for "world", and "Anschauung" is the German word for "view" or "outlook." It is a concept fundamental to German philosophyand epistemologyand refers to a "wide world perception". Additionally, it refers to the framework of ideas and beliefs through which an individual interprets the world and interacts with it. The German word is also in wide use in English, as well as the translated form "world outlook" or "world view". (Compare with ideology).
Origins of world views
Worldview and linguistics
A worldview describes a consistent (to a varying degree) and integral sense of
existenceand provides a framework for generating, sustaining, and applying knowledge.
The linguistic relativity hypothesis of Benjamin Lee Whorf describes how the syntactic-semantic structure of a language becomes an underlying structure for the Weltanschauung of a people through the organization of the causal
perceptionof the world and the linguistic categorizationof entities. As linguistic categorization emerges as a representation of worldview and causality, it further modifies social perception and thereby leads to a continual interaction between languageand perception. [Kay, P. and W. Kempton (1984). "What is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis?" "American Anthropologist" 86(1): 65-79.]
theory, or rather hypothesis, was well received in the late 1940s, but declined in prominence after a decade. In the 1990s, new research gave further support for the linguistic relativity theory, in the works of Stephen Levinson and his team at the Max Planck institute for Psycholinguisticsat Nijmegen, The Netherlands[ [http://www.mpi.nl/world/ Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics] ] . The theory has also gained attention through the work of Lera Boroditskyat Stanford University.
Weltanschauung and cognitive philosophy
One of the most important concepts in cognitive
philosophyand generative sciencesis the German concept of ‘Weltanschauung’. This expression refers to the "wide worldview" or "wide world perception" of a people, family, or person. The Weltanschauung of a people originates from the unique world experience of a people, which they experience over several millennia. The languageof a people reflects the Weltanschauung of that people in the form of its syntactic structures and untranslatable connotations and its denotations.
If it were possible to draw a
mapof the worldon the basis of Weltanschauung, it would probably be seen to cross political borders — Weltanschauung is the product of politicalborders and common experiences of a people from a geographicalregion, Carroll, John B. (ed.)  (1997). Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Cambridge, Mass.: Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ISBN 0-262-73006-5. ] environmental- climaticconditions, the economic resources available, socio-cultural systems, and the linguistic family. Carroll, John B. (ed.)  (1997). Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Cambridge, Mass.: Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ISBN 0-262-73006-5. ] (The work of the population geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforzaaims to show the gene-linguistic co- evolutionof people).
Sapir-Whorf hypothesisis correct, the worldview map of the world would be similar to the linguistic map of the world. However, it would also almost coincide with a map of the world drawn on the basis of musicacross people. [Whorf, Benjamin (John Carroll, Editor) (1956). "Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf." MIT Press.]
Worldview and folk-epics
As natural language becomes manifestations of world
perception, the literatureof a people with common Weltanschauung emerges as holistic representations of the wide world perception of the people. Thus the extent and commonality between world folk-epics becomes a manifestation of the commonality and extent of a worldview. Epic poemsare shared often by people across political borders and across generations. Examples of such epics include the Nibelungenliedof the Germanic- Scandinavian people, The Silappadhikaramof the South Indian people, The Gilgameshof the Mesopotamian- Sumerian civilizationand the people of the Fertile Crescentat large, The Arabian nights of the Arab worldand the Sundiataepic of the Mandépeople.
Construction of worldviews
The 'construction of integrating worldviews' begins from fragments of worldviews offered to us by the different scientific disciplines and the various systems of knowledge. It is contributed to by different perspectives that exist in the world's different cultures. This is the main topic of research at the
Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies.
It should be noted that while Apostel and his followers clearly hold that "individuals" can "construct" worldviews, other writers regard worldviews as operating at a
communitylevel, and/or in an unconsciousway. For instance, if one's worldview is fixed by one's language, as according to a strong version of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, one would have to learn or invent a new language in order to construct a new worldview.
According to Apostel, a worldview should comprise seven elements:
ontology, a descriptive model of the world
explanationof the world
futurology, answering the question "where are we heading?"
#Values, answers to
ethicalquestions: "What should we do?"
praxeology, or methodology, or theory of action.: "How should we attain our goals?"
epistemology, or theory of knowledge. "What is true and false?"
etiology. A constructed world-view should contain an account of its own "building blocks," its origins and construction.
Impact of worldviews
The term denotes a comprehensive set of opinions, seen as an
organic unity, about the world as the medium and exercise of human existence. Weltanschauung serves as a framework for generating various dimensions of human perception and experience like knowledge, politics, economics, religion, culture, science, and ethics. For example, worldview of causalityas "uni-directional", "cyclic", or "spiral" generates a framework of the world that reflects these systems of causality. A uni-directional view of causality is present in some monotheistic views of the world with a beginning and an end and a single great force with a single end (e.g., Christianityand Islam), while a cyclic worldview of causality is present in religious tradition which is cyclic and seasonal and wherein events and experiences recur in systematic patterns (e.g., Zoroastrianism, Mithraism, and Hinduism).
These worldviews of
causalitynot only underlie religious traditions but also other aspects of thought like the purpose of history, political and economic theories, and systems like democracy, authoritarianism, anarchism, capitalism, socialism, and communism.
The worldview of
linearand non-linear causality generates various related/conflicting disciplines and approaches in scientific thinking. The Weltanschauung of the temporal contiguity of act and event leads to underlying diversifications like "determinism" vs. "free will". A worldview of Freewillleads to disciplines that are governed by simple laws that remain constant and are static and empiricalin scientific method, while a worldview of determinismgenerates disciplines that are governed with generative systems and rationalistic in scientific method.
Some forms of
Philosophical naturalismand materialismreject the validity of entities inaccessible to natural science. They view the scientific methodas the most reliable model for building and understandingof the world.
In "The Language of the Third Reich", Weltanschauungen came to designate the instinctive understanding of complex geo-political problems by the Nazis, which allowed them to act in the name of a higher ideal [Victor Klemperer, "The Language of the Third Reich: A Philologist's Notebook", trans. Martin Brady, London: Continuum, 2002] and in accordance to their theory of the world. These acts perceived outside that unique Weltanschauung are now commonly perceived as acts of aggression, such as openly beginning invasions, twisting facts, and violating
Worldviews in religion and philosophy
Various writers suggest that religious or philosophical belief-systems should be seen as worldviews rather than a set of individual hypotheses or theories. The Japanese Philosopher
Nishida Kitarowrote extensively on "the Religious Worldview" in exploring the philosophical significance of Eastern religions [ indeed Kitaro's final book is "Last Writings: Nothingness and the Religious Worldview"] . According to Neo-Calvinist David Naugle's "Worldview: The History of a Concept" "Conceiving of Christianity as a worldview has been one of the most significant developments in the recent history of the church." [David K. Naugle "Worldview: The History of a Concept" ISBN 0802847617]
The Christian thinker
James W. Siredefines a worldview as "a set of presuppositions (assumptions which may be true, partially true or entirely false) which we hold (consciously or subconsciously, consistently or inconsistently) about the basic makeup of our world." and suggests that "we should all think in terms of worldviews, that is, with a consciousness not only of our own way of thought but also that of other people, so that we can first understand and then genuinely communicate with others in our pluralistic society." [James W. Sire "The Universe Next Door: A Basic Worldview Catalog" p15-16 (text readable at Amazon.com)] The Rev. Professor Keith Wardbases his discussion of the rationality of religious belief in Is Religion Dangerous?on a consideration of religious and non-religious worldviews. [see article on the book for details and ref]
The philosophical importance of Worldviews became increasingly clear during the 20th Century for a number of reasons, such as increasing contact between cultures, and the failure of some aspects of the Enlightenment project, such as the
rationalistproject of attaining all truth by reason alone. Mathematical logicshowed that fundamental choices of axiomswere essential in deductive reasoning [Not just in the obvious sense that you need axioms to prove anything, but the fact that for example the Axiom of choiceand Axiom S5, although widely regarded as correct, were in some sense optional.] and that, even having chosen axioms not everything that was true in a given logical systemcould be proven [see Godel's incompleteness theoremand discussion in eg John Lucas's "The Freedom of the Will"] . Some philosophers believe the problems extend to "the inconsistencies and failures which plagued the Enlightenment attempt to identify universal moral and rational principles" [ Thus Alister McGrathin " The Science of God" p 109 citing in particular Alasdair MacIntyre's "Whose Justice? Which Rationality?" - he also cites Nicholas Wolterstorffand Paul Feyerabend] ; although Enlightenment principles such as universal suffrageand (the "universal" declaration of) human rightsare accepted, if not taken for granted, by many. ["Governments in a democracy do not grant the fundamental freedoms enumerated by Jefferson; governments are created to protect those freedoms that every individual possesses by virtue of his or her existence. In their formulation by the Enlightenment philosophers of the 17th and 18th centuries, inalienable rights are God-given natural rights. These rights are not destroyed when civil society is created, and neither society nor government can remove or "alienate" them." [http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/whatsdem/whatdm3.htm US Gov website on democracy] ]
A worldview can be considered as comprising a number of
basic beliefs which are philosophically equivalent to the axioms of the worldview considered as a logical theory. These basic beliefs cannot, by definition, be "proven" (in the logical sense) within the worldview precisely because they are axioms, and are typically argued "from" rather than argued "for" [see eg Hill & Rauser "Christian Philosophy A-Z" Edinburgh University Press(2006) ISBN 9780748621521 p200] . However their coherence can be explored philosophically and logically, and if two different worldviews have sufficient common beliefs it may be possible to have a constructive dialogue between them [In the Christian tradition this goes back at least to Justin Martyr's "Dialogues with Trypho, A Jew", and has roots in the debates recorded in the New Testament. For a discussion of the long history of religious dialogue in India, see Amartya Sen's "The Argumentative Indian"] . On the other hand, if different worldviews are held to be basicallyincommensurate and irreconcilable, then the situation is one of cultural relativismand would therefore incur the standard criticisms from philosophical realists. [ [http://www.iep.utm.edu/c/cog-rel.htm#H5 "Cognitive Relativism", Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] ] [The problem of self-refutation is quite general. It arises whether truth is relativized to a framework of concepts, of beliefs, of standards, of practices. [http://www.science.uva.nl/~seop/entries/relativism/ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy] [ [http://www.friesian.com/relative.htm The Friesian School on Relativism] ] . Additionally, religious believers might not wish to see their beliefs relativized into something that is only "true for them" [ [http://www.cwnews.com/news/viewstory.cfm?recnum=49207 Pope Benedict warns against relativism] ] [ [http://www.ewtn.com/library/CURIA/RATZRELA.HTM Ratzinger, J. "Relativism, the Central Problem for Faith Today"] ] . Subjective logicis a belief reasoning formalism where beliefs explicitly are subjectively held by individuals but where a consensus between different worldviews can be achieved [ [http://eprints.qut.edu.au/archive/00007204/ Jøsang, A. "A Logic for Uncertain Probabilities." International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems, 9(3), pp.279-311, June 2001.] ] .
A third alternative is that the Worldview approach is only a "methodological" relativism, that it isa suspension judgment about the truth of various belief systems, but not a declaration that there is no global truth. For instance, the religious philosopher
Ninian Smartbegins his "Worldviews: Crosscultural Explorations of Human Beliefs" with "Exploring Religions and Analysing Worldviews" and argues for "the neutral, dispassionate study of different religious and secular systems - a process I call worldview analysis." [ Ninian Smart"Worldviews: Crosscultural Explorations of Human Beliefs (3rd Edition)" ISBN 0130209805 p14]
* Point of view
Socially constructed reality
* [http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/WORLVIEW.html "World View article on the Principia Cybernetica Project] - Another article on World View complementary to this one.
* Apostel, Leo and Van der Veken, Jan. (1991) Wereldbeelden, DNB/Pelckmans.
* Aerts, Diederick, Apostel, Leo, De Moor, Bart, Hellemans, Staf, Maex, Edel, Van Belle, Hubert, Van der Veken, Jan. 1994. [http://www.vub.ac.be/CLEA/pub/books/worldviews.pdf "World views. From Fragmentation to Integration"] . VUBPress. Translation of (Apostel and Van der Veken 1991) with some additions. - The basic book of World Views, from the Center Leo Apostel.
* [http://www.projectworldview.org/worldviews.htm "Worldviews--An Introduction"] from Project Worldview
* - an essay on current research in linguistic relativity (Lera Boroditsky)
* [http://www.inTERRAgation.com inTERRAgation.com - A documentary project. Collecting and evaluating answers to "the meaning of life" from around the world.]
* [http://henrycenter.org/files/cole.pdf Cole, Graham A., "Do Christians Have A Worldview?"] A paper examining the concept of worldview as it relates to and has been used by Christianity. Contains a helpful annotated bibliography.
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