- James Edward Zimmerman
James Edward Zimmerman (
February 19, 1923– August 4, 1999) was born in Lantry, South Dakota. He was a coinventor of the radio-frequency superconducting quantuminterference device ( SQUID) and he is credited with coining the term.
Westinghouse Research Laboratory, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania - 1943 – ??
Smithsonian Institution, 1953 – 1955
Ford Motor Company, Scientific Laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan, 1955 – 1969
* SHE (now BTI), Founder 1969 – 1970
National Bureau of Standards, 1970 – 1985
While at NIST, Jim introduced two important innovations in SQUID magnetometry:
* Fractional-turn SQUID, improving the coupling efficiency
* SQUID gradiometer, improving sensitivity to nearby fieldsIn addition, in the late 70's and early 80's, he also gave a major contributionto the development of low-power closed-cycle Stirling refrigerators,to reach temperatures in the range 4K - 8K with the purpose of cooling
SQUIDdevices and small-scale superconducting electronics without resorting to
liquid helium dewar vessels.A major achievement was the use of plastic parts made in the laboratory,which would be assembled in a totally non-magnetic
cryocooler(refrigerator),in order not to interfere with highly sensitive SQUID's.Later, he was also involved in the development of pulse-tube cryocoolers.
South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, B.S. Electrical Engineering 1943 Carnegie Institute of Technology, ScD Physics 1951 – 1953
Samuel Wesley StrattonAward, the highest award for scientific achievement conferred by NIST
In 1987 he became one of the first to make a SQUID using the newly discovered high-temperature superconductors.
On New Year's Eve of 1969, he participated in an historic experiment, conducted at MIT in collaboration with David Cohen and Edgar Edelsak recording the first human magnetocardiogram using a SQUID sensor.
* [http://www.physicstoday.org/vol-53/iss-7/p70.html Physics Today Obituary]
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