Gokula ( _hi. गोकुला) or
Gokul Singh( _hi. गोकुल सिंह) (died 1670AD) was a Jat chieftain of Sinsinivillage in Bharatpur district( _hi. भरतपुर) in Rajasthan, India. Later, he became a chieftain of Tilpatin Haryana. His father's name was Madu. Madu had four sons namely, Sindhuraj, Ola, Jhaman and Saman. The second son Ola later became famous as Gokula. [Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 5] Gokula provided leadership to the Jat peasants who challenged the Imperial power. Gokula inspired the Jats to fight the Mughals.
The first serious outbreak of anti-imperial reaction took place among the Jats of
Mathuradistrict Uttar Pradesh, where the imperial faujdar'Abdun-Nabi', had oppressed them greatly. In 1669 the sturdy Jat peasantry rose under a leader, Gokula, Zamindarof Tilpat, killed the faujdar, and kept the whole district in disorder for a year, till they were suppressed by a strong imperial force under Hasan Ali Khan, the new faujdarof Mathura. Gokula was put to death. [R.C. Majumdar, H.C. Raychaudhari, Kalikinkar Datta: An Advanced History of India, 2006, p.490]
Gokula left Sinsini
In year 1650-51 Madu and his uncle Singha had fight with Rajput Raja Jai Singh backed by mughal support in which Sindhuraj died and second son of Madu Ola became the successor. After this war Singha along with other Jat families in the fortress 'Girsa' moved to
Mahavanbeyond River Yamuna. Ola (Gokula) also moved with Singha to this place. [Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 5]
Rise of Gokula
Gokula came on scene when the Mughal emperor
Aurangzeb(1658-1707) attempted to convert Dar-ul-Hurb ( Hindustan) to Dar-ul-Islam forcibly through persecution and dogmatic policies. The 1669 Jat uprisingin Indiaunder Gokula occurred at a time when the Mughal government was by no means weak. [Girish Chandra Dwivedi, The Jats – Their role in the Mughal empire, Ed by Dr Vir Singh. Delhi, 2003, p. 15] In fact this period of Aurangzeb’s reign witnessed the climax of the Mughal Empire. [J.N.Sarkar, History of Auranzeb (Calcutta): 1912, I, Introduction, XI-XIII] [F.X. Wendel, Memoires des Jats, 10] During the early medieval period frequent breakdown of law and order often induced the Jats to adopt a refractory course. [J.N. Sarkar, History of Auranzeb (Calcutta): 1912, I, Introduction, XXVIII f.] But with the establishment of Mughal rule, law and order was effectively established and there were no major Jat revolts during the century and a half preceding the reign of Aurangzeb, [Girish Chandra Dwivedi, The Jats – Their role in the Mughal empire, Ed by Dr Vir Singh. Delhi, 2003, p. 15] though in 1638 Murshid Quli Khan, the Mughal faujdar of Mathura, was killed during an operation against Jats. During the reign of Aurangzeb, the faujdarof Mathura in 1669 was Abdunnabi, who incurred the wrath of the people. [Dr P.L. Vishwakarma, The Jats, Vol. I, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2004, p. 113]
In early 1669
Aurangzebappointed a strong follower of Islam, Abdunnabi, as faujdar of Mathurato curb the Hindusof this area. Abdunnabi established a cantonment near Gokul Singhand conducted all his operations from there. Gokula organized the farmers not to give taxes to the Mughals. The Mughal soldiers retaliated, beginning the struggle of the farmers. Meanwhile Aurangzeb issued orders on 9 April, 1669to abolish the Hindu temples. As a result a large number of Hindu temples and ancient heritages from the period of Kushanswere damaged. [Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 33] During May 1669 the faujdar Abdunnabi seized the village Sihora. Gokula was there and there was a fight in which Abdunnabi was killed. Gokula and his fellow farmers moved further, attacked and destroyed the Sadabadcantonment. Sadullakhan had founded Sadabad during the period of Shahjahan. This incidence inspired the Hindus to fight against the Mughal rulers. [Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 34] The fights continued for five months. [Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 35]
The outbreak of the rebellion
The year 1669 witnessed, the bursting forth of the pent up fury of the Jats into a very powerful revolt under the inspiring leadership of
Gokula, the zamindarof Tilpat. A remarkable feature of this rebellion was its composite character. [Girish Chandra Dwivedi, The Jats – Their role in the Mughal empire, Ed by Dr Vir Singh. Delhi, 2003, p. 25] Though the Jats counted for its majority and provided leadership to it, it consisted of other local people as well such as, Mev, Meena, Ahir, Gujar, Naruka, Panwarand others. [Ganga Singh, op. cit., I, p. 64-65] The rebels gathered at the village of Sahora(about 6 miles from Mathura). Abdun Nabi, the faujdar of Mathura, attacked them. At first he appeared to be gaining ground, but in the middle of the fighting he was killed on 12 may, 1669(21st Zil-Hijja, 1079 A.H.) [Maasir, p. 83] , [Roznamcha also known as Ibratnama by Muhammad (R.S.L. Ms p. 133] , [Kamwar (pers. Ms.), II, p. 163] , [Maasir-ul-Umra, I, p. 437, 618]
Overjoyed at this success, Gokula ravaged the paragana and town of Sadabad (24 miles from Mathura) in the Daob. [Maasir, p.93] , [Maasir-ul-Umra, I, p. 437, 618] , [Fatuhat, 9pers. Ms.) 53a] The turbulence spread to
Agra Districtalso whereto Radandaz Khan was sent (13th May – 22nd Zil-Hijja) with a force to put down the rebels. Aurangazeb appointed Saf Shikan Khan as the new faujdar of Mathura. [Maasir, p.83, 84] , [Maasir-ul-Umra, I, p. 618, II, p. 673] As arms failed to prevail, diplomacy was resorted to. The Mughal government offered to forgive Gokula provided he surrendered his spoils. But Gukula spurned the offer. On the other side, as the situation was assuming serious proportions, the Emperor had to proceed ( 28 November 1669-14th Rajab, 1080 A.H.) in person to the Disturbed area. On his way on 4 December1669 (20th Rajab) Aurangazeb learnt of the circumstance of rebellion in the villages of Rewara, Chandarakantaand Sarkhud ( Sarkharu?). He dispatched Hasan Ali khan to attack these places. Till noon the insurgent fought with bows and muskets. Getting desperate thereafter, many of them having performed the jauharof their women fell upon the Khan, A fierce fight raged till the evening in which many imperialists and 300 rebels were killed. Hasan Ali Khan returned to the Emperor, taking 250 male and female prisoners. Aurangazeb was pleased with his performance. He made him the faujdar of Mathura in place of Saf Shikan Khan who had obviously failed in suppressing the rebels. [Maasir, p. 91-92] , [Kamwar (Pers. Ms.), II, p. 166] , [sarkar, Aurangzeb, III, p. 294]
Under Hasan Ali Khan, were placed 2,000 barqandaztroops 1000 archers 1000 musketeers 1,000 rocketmen, and 25 pieces of cannons. Amanulla, the faujdar of the environs of Agra, was also ordered to help Hasan Ali. The latter immediately got engaged in quelling the rebellion.
The battle of Tilpat
Gokula with 20,000 Jat and other followers, rushed forward to face the imperialists at a place 20 miles from
Tilpat. Both the sides suffered many casualties in the battle in which the Jats, despite showing utmost bravery, could not cope with the trained Mughals and their artillery. They retreated to Tilpat. Hasan Ali followed them and besieged the fortalice. Fighting continued for three days in which muskets and bows were used by the contestants. On the fourth day, the royalists charged the besieged from all sides and having made a breach in the walls entered Tilpat. Then ensued a sanguinary conflict. The Jats displayed their reckless courage and undaunted valour. The experienced Mughals gained the day but not before losing 4,000 men. Of the vanquished 5000 lay dead, while 7000 were arrested.
The gravity of this war can be understood from the fact that the Emperor
Aurangzebhad to march himself on November 28, 1669 from Delhito curb the Jat threat. The Mughalsunder Hasan Alikhan and Brahmdev Sisodiaattacked Gokula Jat. [Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 39] Gokula and his uncle Uday Singh with 20,000 Jats, Ahirsand Gujars fought with superb courage and tenacity, the battle at Tilpat, but their grit and bravery had no answer to the Mughal artillery. It was only after three days of grim fight Tilpat fell. Losses on both sides were very heavy.
Gokula hacked to death
Gokula, with his two associates including “ Sonki” (Udai Singh Singhi), was captured alive through the efforts of Shaikh Razi-ud-Din, the peshkar of Hassan Ali. They and other prisoners were presented to the Emperor. Being furious, he ordered Gokula and Uday Singh to be cut limb on the Chabutara of the Kotwali (Agra). Other captives either met fate of their leader or were put in chains. [Fatuhat (Pers. Ms.), p. 53a-53b] , [Maasir, p. 93-94] , [Kamwar (Pers. Ms.), II, p. 166] , [Maasir-ul-Umra, I, p.437, 618]
Gokula and Uday Singh were imprisoned. Jat women committed
Jauhar. Gokula was offered pardon if he accepted Islam, which was refused. Gokula and Uday Singh were hacked to death at AgraKotwali on 1 January 1670. [Narendra Singh Verma: Virvar Amar Jyoti Gokul Singh (Hindi), Sankalp Prakashan, Agra, 1986, p. 50]
Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Delhi, 1934
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The Jat Uprising of 1669
* [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/text.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V08_080.gifImperial Gazetteer of India, v. 8, Bharatpur State]
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