Name = Progeria
DiseasesDB = 10704
ICD10 = ICD10|E|34|8|e|20
ICD9 = ICD9|259.8
OMIM = 176670
eMedicineSubj = derm
eMedicineTopic = 731
MeshID = D011371
Progeria is a condition of early aging [Stedman's|1556196|Progeria] which usually refers specifically to Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome.
Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome is an extremely rare condition in which physical aspects of aging are greatly accelerated, and few affected children live past age 13. About 1 in 8 million babies are born with this condition. It is a genetic condition, but occurs sporadically and is usually not inherited in families.
Scientists are particularly interested in progeria because it might reveal clues about the normal process of aging.cite journal |author=McClintock D, Ratner D, Lokuge M, "et al" |title=The Mutant Form of Lamin A that Causes Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Is a Biomarker of Cellular Aging in Human Skin |journal=
PLoS ONE|volume=2 |issue=12 |pages=e1269 |year=2007 |pmid=18060063 |doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0001269 |url=http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0001269] cite journal |author=Korf B |title=Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, aging, and the nuclear lamina |journal=N. Engl. J. Med. |volume=358 |issue=6 |pages=552–5 |year=2008 |pmid=18256390 |doi=10.1056/NEJMp0800071 |url=http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/358/6/552] [cite journal |author=Merideth MA, Gordon LB, Clauss S, "et al" |title=Phenotype and course of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome |journal=N. Engl. J. Med. |volume=358 |issue=6 |pages=592–604 |year=2008 |pmid=18256394 |doi=10.1056/NEJMoa0706898 |url=http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/358/6/59]
The earliest symptoms include
failure to thrive(FTT) and a localized scleroderma-like skin condition. As the child ages past infancy, additional conditions become apparent. Limited growth, alopecia, and a distinctive appearance with small face and jaw and pinched nose all are characteristic of progeria. The people diagnosed with this disease usually have small, fragile bodies like those of elderly people.
Later the condition causes wrinkled skin,
=Cause= Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a childhood disorder caused by mutations in one of the major architectural proteins of the cell nucleus. Unlike most other "accelerated aging diseases" (such as
Werner's syndrome, Cockayne's syndromeor xeroderma pigmentosum), progeria is not caused by defective DNA repair. Because these "accelerated aging" diseases display different aspects of aging, but never every aspect, they are often called "segmental progerias".
In HGPS patients, the cell nucleus has dramatically aberrant morphology (bottom, right) rather than the uniform shape typically found in healthy individuals (top, right)
Diagnosis is suspected according to signs and symptoms, such as skin changes, abnormal growth, and loss of hair. It can be confirmed through a genetic test.cite web |url=http://www.genome.gov/11007255#isthere |title=genome.gov | Learning About Progeria |accessdate=2008-03-17 |format= |work=]
No treatments have been proven effective. Most treatment focuses on reducing complications such as cardiovascular disease, such as
heart bypasssurgery or low-dose aspirin.cite web |url=http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/progeria/DS00936/DSECTION=7 |title=Progeria: Treatment - MayoClinic.com |accessdate=2008-03-17 |format= |work=] Children may also benefit from a high-calorie diet. Growth hormone treatmenthas been attempted.cite journal |author=Sadeghi-Nejad A, Demmer L |title=Growth hormone therapy in progeria |journal= J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.|volume=20 |issue=5 |pages=633–7 |year=2007 |pmid=17642424 |doi=]
A type of anti-cancer drug, the
farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs), have been proposed, but their use has been mostly limited to animal models.cite journal |author=Meta M, Yang SH, Bergo MO, Fong LG, Young SG |title=Protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors and progeria |journal= Trends Mol Med|volume=12 |issue=10 |pages=480–7 |year=2006 |pmid=16942914 |doi=10.1016/j.molmed.2006.08.006 |url=http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1471-4914(06)00175-4] A phase II clinical trial using the FTI Lonafarnibbegan in May 2007.cite web | url=http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00425607?term=progeria&rank=2 | title=Phase II trial of Lonafarnib (a farnesyltransferase inhibitor) for progeria | pmid=ls1 |doi=]
There is no known cure. Few people with progeria exceed 13 years of age.cite web | url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/science/2003-04-16-agin-gene_x.htm | title=Gene found for rapid aging disease in children | author=Steve Sternberg | date=April 16, 2003 | publisher=USA Today | accessdate=2006-12-13 ] At least 90% of patients die from complications of
atherosclerosis, such as heart attacks or strokes.cite web |url=http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/progeria/DS00936/DSECTION=1 |title=Progeria - MayoClinic.com |accessdate=2008-03-17 |format= |work=]
Mental development is not affected. The development of symptoms is comparable to aging at a rate six to eight times faster than normal, although certain age-related conditions do not occur. Specifically, patients show no
neurodegenerationor cancerpredisposition. They also do not develop "wear and tear" conditions commonly associated with aging, like cataractsand osteoarthritis.cite web |url=http://www.genome.gov/11007255#isthere |title=genome.gov | Learning About Progeria |accessdate=2008-03-17 |format= |work=]
One study from the Netherlands has shown an incidence of 1 in 4 million births.cite journal |author=Hennekam RC |title=Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: review of the phenotype |journal=
Am. J. Med. Genet. A|volume=140 |issue=23 |pages=2603–24 |year=2006 |pmid=16838330 |doi=10.1002/ajmg.a.31346 |doi=10.1002/ajmg.a.31346] Currently, there are 48 known cases in the world.
Approximately 100 cases have been formally identified in medical history. [cite web |url=http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/progeria/DS00936 |title=Progeria - MayoClinic.com |accessdate=2008-02-06 |format= |work=]
Classical Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria Syndrome is not passed on from parent to child, because most affected children don't live long enough to have children themselves. It is usually caused by a new (sporadic) mutation during the division of the cells that create unfertilized egg or sperm.
Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria Syndrome is genetically dominant, therefore parents who are healthy cannot pass it on to their children.
However, there are milder cases in which either the gene is not expressed in parents, or a different gene is responsible for a different form of progeria, and healthy parents can pass on their children.
Three families have been identified as having more than one child with the disease. The first was a family in
Indiathat has five children with progeria, two of which are now deceased. The eldest daughter with progeria is 19 years old, and their eldest son with progeria is 17, both having survived longer than typical among people with progeria. Their other living child with progeria is 7. The family was a subject of a 2005 Bodyshockdocumentary entitled "The 80 Year Old Children".
In 2006, the Vandersweets, a family in Belgium, who already had one child diagnosed with progeria, were informed that their second child also had the disease. [ [http://www.progeria.be/index_EN.php Progeria.be - Home ] ]
The third case is a family that lives in Aguacatan in
Guatemala. The family consists of 3 children. 1, 7 and 18 years old. The 7 and 18 year old both have been diagnosed with Progeria. Status of the infant is still uncertain.
Several discoveries have been made that have led to greater understanding and perhaps eventual treatment.cite journal |author=Capell BC, Collins FS, Nabel EG |title=Mechanisms of cardiovascular disease in accelerated aging syndromes |journal=
Circ. Res.|volume=101 |issue=1 |pages=13–26 |year=2007 |pmid=17615378 |doi=10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.107.153692 |url=http://circres.ahajournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17615378]
A 2003 report in Nature [cite journal |author=M. Eriksson et al. |title= Recurrent de novo point mutations in lamin A cause Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome |journal=
Nature|volume=423 |pages=293–298 |year=2003 |url=http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v423/n6937/pdf/nature01629.pdf] said progeria may be a de novo dominant trait. It develops during cell divisionin a newly conceived child or in the gametes of one of the parents. It is caused by mutations in LMNA ( Lamin A protein) geneon chromosome 1; The mutated form of Lamin A is commonly known as progerin. One of the authors, Leslie Gordon, was a physician who didn't know anything about progeria, until her own son, Sam, was diagnosed at 21 months. Gordon and her husband, pediatrician Scott Berns, founded the Progeria Research Foundation. [ [http://www.sciencemag.org/content/vol300/issue5621/r-samples.dtl Family Crisis Becomes Scientific Quest, Science, 300(5621), 9 May 2003] ]
Nuclear laminais a protein scaffoldon the inner edge of the nucleus that helps organize nuclear processes such as RNAand DNAsynthesis.
Prelamin A contains a
CAAX boxat the C-terminusof the protein (where C is a cysteineand A is any aliphaticamino acids). This ensures that the cysteine is farnesylated, and this allows Prelamin A to bind membranes, specifically the nuclear membrane. After Prelamin A has been localized to the cell nuclear membrane the C-terminal amino acids, including the farnesylated cysteine, are cleaved off by a specific protease. The resulting protein is now Lamin A, is no longer membrane-bound and carries out functions inside the nucleus.
In HGPS the recognition site that the enzyme requires for cleavage of Prelamin A to Lamin A is mutated. Lamin A cannot be produced and Prelamin A builds up on the nuclear membrane, causing a characteristic nuclear
blebbing. [cite journal |author=Lans H, Hoeijmakers JH |title=Cell biology: ageing nucleus gets out of shape |journal=Nature |volume=440 |issue=7080 |pages=32–4 |year=2006 |pmid=16511477 |doi=10.1038/440032a |url=] This results in the premature aging symptoms of progeria, although the mechanism connecting the misshapen nucleus to the symptoms is not known.
A study which compared HGPS patient cells with the skin cells from LMNA young and elderly human subjects found similar defects in the HGPS and elderly cells, including
down-regulationof certain nuclear proteins, increased DNAdamage and demethylationof histoneleading to reduced heterochromatin. [cite journal | author=Scaffidi P, Misteli T | title=Lamin A-dependent nuclear defects in human aging | journal= Science | year=2006 | date=May 19, 2006 | volume=312 | issue=5776 | pages=1059–63 | pmid=16645051] Nematodes over their lifespan show progressive lamin changes comparable to HGPS in all cells but neurons and gametes.cite journal |author=Haithcock E, Dayani Y, Neufeld E, "et al" |title=Age-related changes of nuclear architecture in Caenorhabditis elegans |journal= Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.|volume=102 |issue=46 |pages=16690–5 |year=2005 |pmid=16269543 |doi=10.1073/pnas.0506955102 |url=http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/102/46/16690] These studies suggest that lamin A defects contribute to normal aging.
Mouse model of progeria
A mouse model of progeria exists, though in the mouse the LMNA prelamin A is not mutated, but instead
ZMPSTE24, the specific protease that is required to remove the C-terminus of Prelamin A is missing. Both cases result in the build up of farnesylated Prelamin A on the nuclear membrane and in the characteristic nuclear LMNA blebbing. Fong et al use a farnesyl transferase inhibitor(FTI) in this mouse model to inhibit protein farnesylation of Prelamin A. Treated mice had greater grip strength, lower likelihood of rib fractureand may live longer than untreated mice. [cite journal | author=Loren G. Fong| title=A Protein Farnesyltransferase Inhibitor Ameliorates Disease in a Mouse Model of Progeria | journal= Science | year=2006 | date=March 17, 2006 | volume=311 | issue=5767 | pages=1621–3| url=http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/1124875v1 |pmid=16484451]
This method does not directly 'cure' the underlying cause of progeria. This method prevents Prelamin A going to the nucleus in the first place so no Prelamin A can build up on the nuclear membrane, but equally there is no production of normal Lamin A in the nucleus. Luckily Lamin A does not appear to be essential, indeed mouse models in which the genes for Prelamin A and C are knocked out show no symptoms. This also shows that it is the build up of Prelamin A in the wrong place, rather than the loss of the normal function of Lamin A that causes the disease.
It was hypothesized that part of the reason that treatment with an FFI such as
alendronateis inefficient due to prenylationby geranylgeranyltransferase. Since statinsinhibit geranylgeranyltransferase, the combination of an FFI and statins was tried, and markedly improved "the aging-like phenotypes of mice deficient in the metalloproteinase Zmpste24, including growth retardation, loss of weight, lipodystrophy, hair loss and bone defects". [cite journal |author=Varela I, Pereira S, Ugalde AP, "et al" |title=Combined treatment with statins and aminobisphosphonates extends longevity in a mouse model of human premature aging |journal=Nat. Med. |volume=14 |issue=7 |pages=767–72 |year=2008 |pmid=18587406 |doi=10.1038/nm1786 |url=http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v14/n7/abs/nm1786.html]
Progeria was first described in
1886by Jonathan Hutchinson[cite journal |author=Hutchinson J |title=Case of congenital absence of hair, with atrophic condition of the skin and its appendages, in a boy whose mother had been almost wholly bald from alopecia areata from the age of six |journal=Lancet |year=1886 |volume=I |issue= |pages=923 |pmid=] and also described independently in 1897by Hastings Gilford. [cite journal |author=Gilford H |title=Ateleiosis and progeria: continuous youth and premature old age |journal=Brit. Med. J. |year=1904 |volume=2 |issue= |pages=914–8 |pmid=] The condition was later named Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS).
* The character J.F. Sebastian in the 1982 movie "
Blade Runner" suffers from "Methuselah syndrome", a fictional equivalent of progeria.
* The character Orlando Gardiner in the
Otherlandseries of four books by Tad Williamssuffers from progeria.
* In the play, "
Kimberly Akimbo", the character Kimberly Levaco has progeria.
* In the movie "Renaissance", a science fiction speculation is made on progeria as the holy grail for the discovery of the genetic key to immortality.
* In the
TV series Strangea demon called Zoxim is said to cause rapid aging through the progeria.
* In the novel "Haunted", the character Brandon Whittier suffers from progeria.
* In the television series
The X-Filesepisode Young At Heart the plot involves a doctor working on patients with progeria.
* The main character in the movie
Jack (film)has an fake and exaggerated form of progeria, with Jack aging four times faster than usual, but otherwise normally. That is, he looks exactly like a 40 year old man at age 10.
* Experiments gone wrong lead to an extremely accelerated form of progeria in the new 2008 TV series
* [http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/specials/seth/190908_progeriamain.asp "A Time to Live"] –
Seattle Post-Intelligencerfeature about Seth Cook, a child with Progeria.
* [http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/321200_seth26.html "Seth Cook, 1993-2007"] –
Seattle Post-Intelligencerobituary for Seth Cook.
* [http://www.channel4.com/health/microsites/0-9/80_year_old_children/index.html Bodyshock: The 80-Year-Old Children]
* [http://www.mymultiplesclerosis.co.uk/misc/hayleyokines.html The Girl who is older than her Grandmother]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4286347.stm "Family tormented by ageing disease"] –
BBC Newsarticle on a family with Progeria; cites study that progeria is inheritable.
* [http://www.hgps.net Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome Network]
* [http://www.progeriaresearch.org/ Progeria Research Foundation]
* [http://www.progeria.ca/ Progeria News and Media Collection]
* [http://www.benbest.com/lifeext/aging.html#progeria Segmental Progeria]
* [http://deltaboost.blogspot.com/2006/03/news-farnesyl-transferase-inhibitors.html Farnesyl transferase inhibitors may help children with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria] – Article on the use of FTI inhibitors as potential treatment
* [http://www.fli-leibniz.de/index_en.php Leibniz Institute for Age Research - Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI)]
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