- Number names
In

linguistics , a**number name**, or**numeral**, is a symbol or group of symbols, or aword in anatural language that represents anumber . Numerals differ from numbers just as words differ from the things they refer to. The symbols "11", "eleven" and "XI" are different numerals, all representing the same number. This article attempts to explain the various systems of numerals.**History****Counting base****10 - decimal**Although a majority of traditional number systems are based on the

decimal numeral system , there are many regional variations even within decimal, including:* Western system: based on thousands, with variants (see

English-language numerals )

* Indian system:crore ,lakh (seeIndian numbering system .Indian numerals )

* East Asian system: based on ten-thousands (see below)**12 - duodecimal**Duodecimal numbers have only been used consistently in a few cases. Among these, the Chepang language ofNepal , theMahl language ofMinicoy Island inIndia , and several languages of theNigerian Middle Belt , such as Janji, Kahugu and theNimbia dialect of Gwandara. However, duodecimal subdivisions offer practical advantages over decimal because of the better divisibility of twelve (which is ahighly composite number ), and as such they have been used extensively in many other cultures as well; for example, in time divisions (twelve months in a year, the twelve-hour clock), in theimperial system of units (twelve inches to the foot, twelve Troy ounces to the Troy pound), or in the former British monetary system (twelve pence to the shilling). As a result, languages such as English eventually borrowed or evolved terms such "dozen ", "gross" and "great gross ", which allow for a rudimentary duodecimal nomenclature (e.g., saying "two gross and six dozen" instead of "three hundred and sixty"). Ancient Romans used decimal for integers, but switched to duodecimal for fractions, and correspondinglyLatin developed a rich vocabulary for duodecimal-based fractions (see Roman numerals). In fiction,J. R. R. Tolkien 'sElvish languages used duodecimal along with decimal.**20 - vigesimal**Vigesimal numbers were the standard among ancientMesoamerica n cultures, and are still in use in the modern indigenous languages of their present-day descendants, such as theNahuatl andMayan languages (see alsoMaya numerals ). Vigesimal terminology is also found to some extent in some European languages (Basque,Celtic languages , French (in which case is originally derived from Celtic languages), Danish, Georgian). English has a remnant of vigesimal numeration in the word "score" (famously used in the opening of theGettysburg Address ).**5 - quinary**Quinary is found inInuit languages .**8 - octal**Octal is used in theYuki language ofCalifornia and in thePamean languages ofMexico , because their speakers count using the spaces between their fingers rather than the fingers themselves. [*citation*]

title=Ethnomathematics: A Multicultural View of Mathematical Ideas

first=Marcia

last=Ascher

year=1994

publisher=Chapman & Hall

isbn=0412989417For very large (and very small) numbers, traditional systems have been superseded by the use of

scientific notation and the system ofSI prefix es. Traditional systems continue to be used in everyday life.**Types of numerals**In

linguistics names of numbers can be classified according to their use: [*http://www.sil.org/LINGUISTICS/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsANumeral.htm*]

***Cardinal numerals**: how many items - "one", "two", "three".

***ordinal numerals**: position - "first", "second", "third".

***Multiplicative numerals**: how many times - "once", "twice", "thrice".

***Distributive numerals**: expresses a group of the number specified: In "pairs", by the "dozen". English does not have distributive numerals for these but other languages such as Georgian do. [*http://wals.info/feature/description/*]

***Partitive numerals**: expresses a fraction - half, third, quarter.**Numerals in various languages and scripts***

Arabic numeral system

*Armenian numerals

*Babylonian numerals

*Chinese numerals

*English-language numerals

*Greek numerals

*Hebrew numerals

* Indian numerals

*Japanese numerals

*Korean numerals

*Mayan numerals

*Quipu

*Rod numerals

*Roman numerals **See also***

Large numbers

*Abacus

*History of large numbers

*List of numbers in various languages

*List of numeral system topics

*Long and short scales

*Myriad

*Names of large numbers

*Numeral system **References**

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