- Godfrey Kneller
Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1st Baronet (
8 August 1646– 19 October 1723) was the leading portrait painterin Englandduring the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and was court painter to British monarchs from Charles II to George I. His major works include " The Chinese Convert" (1687); a series of four portraits of Isaac Newtonpainted at various junctures of the latter's life; a series of ten reigning European monarchs, including King Louis XIV of France; over 40 " Kit-cat portraits" of members of the Kit-Cat Club; and ten "beauties" of the court of William III, to match a similar series of ten beauties of the court of Charles II painted by his predecessor as court painter, Sir Peter Lely.
Kneller was born Gottfried Kniller in
Lübeck, Germany. Kneller studied in Leiden, but became a pupil of Ferdinand Boland Rembrandt in Amsterdam. He worked in Romeand Venicein the early 1670s, painting historical subjects and portraits, and later moved to Hamburg. He came to England in 1674, at the invitation of the Duke of Monmouth, accompanied by his brother, John Zacharias Kneller, who was an ornamental painter. He was introduced to, and painted a portrait of, Charles II. In England, Kneller concentrated almost entirely on portraiture. He founded a studio which churned out portraits on an almost industrial scale, relying on a brief sketch of the face with details added to a formulaic model, aided by the fashion for gentlemen to wear full wigs. His portraits set a pattern that was followed until William Hogarthand Joshua Reynolds.
Nevertheless, he established himself as a leading portrait artist in England. When
Sir Peter Lelydied in 1680, Kneller was appointed Principal Painter to the Crown by Charles II. In the 1690s, Kneller painted the Hampton Court Beautiesdepicting the most glamorous ladies-in-waiting of the Royal Court for which he received his knighthood from William III. He produced a series of "Kit-cat" portraits of 48 leading politicians and men of letters, members of the Kit-Cat Club. Created a baronetby King George I, he was also head of the "Kneller Academy of Painting and Drawing" 1711-1716 in Great Queen Street, London. His paintings were praised by Whig luminaries such as John Dryden, Joseph Addison, Richard Steele, and Alexander Pope.
Kneller died of fever in 1723 and his remains were interred in
Twickenham Church(he was a churchwarden there when the 14th century nave collapsed in 1713 and was involved in the plans for its reconstruction). The site of the house he built in 1709 in Whitton near Twickenhamis now occupied by the mid-19th century Kneller Hall, home of the Royal Military School of Music.
English school of painting
* [http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/walker/collections/17c/kneller.asp King Charles II (1685)] at the [http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/walker/ Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool]
* [http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/kneller_sir_godfrey.html Artcyclopedia: Sir Godfrey Kneller]
* [http://www.kfki.hu/~arthp/bio/k/kneller/biograph.html Biography]
* [http://35.1911encyclopedia.org/K/KN/KNELLER_SIR_GODFREY.htm Encyclopedia: Kneller, Sir Godfrey]
* [http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/person.asp?LinkID=mp02571&role=art Portraits by Kneller] at the National Portrait Gallery
* [http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/portrait.asp?LinkID=mp02571&rNo=8&role=art Self-portrait] at the National Portrait Gallery
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