Heterodoxy includes "any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position". [Definition of orthodoxy from [http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/webwn2.0?stage=1&word=heterodoxy WordNet] ] As an adjective, "heterodox" is used to describe a subject as "characterized by departure from accepted beliefs or standards" ("
status quo"). The noun "heterodoxy" is synonymous with "unorthodoxy", while the adjective "heterodox" is synonymous with " dissident".
In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the term is used to refer to Christian churches not belonging to the Eastern Orthodox communion and holding doctrines different from those of Orthodox Christianity. [Orthodox Dogmatic Theology, by Fr. Michael Pomazansky, trans. by Fr. Seraphim Rose (Platina, CA: St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1994), pp. 243-246] Also, it is used for any idea, thought, dogma, principle or lifestyle that is in conflict with the
Orthodox Faith. In general, this term is used in two distinct cases: 1. Whenever Eastern Orthodoxy wants to classify something different, but not as different or thought to be as erroneous as heresy; 2. Whenever Eastern Orthodoxy wants, for any reason, to abstain from the use of the word heresy. Roman Catholicism
Heterodoxy in the
Roman Catholic Churchrefers to views that differ from strictly orthodox views, but retain sufficient faithfulness to the original doctrine to avoid heresy. Many Roman Catholics profess some heterodox views, either on doctrinal or social issues.Fact|date=January 2008 For example, the orthodox Catholic position on unbaptized infants is that their fate is uncertain, and "the Church can only entrust them to the mercy of God" (Catechism of the Catholic Church 1261). A heterodox Catholic might profess the belief that unbaptized infants are offered the option to accept or deny salvation by God at their judgment. The belief is not orthodox, as the Church does not profess a belief as to what happens to unbaptized infants; however, it is also not heresy, as the Church accepts that such a scenario "might" be possible. By contrast, a denial of the doctrine of " Original Sin" (thereby negating the necessity of baptism for children) or Papal Infallibility-- would be labeled heretical. Protestantism
As with Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic usage, many Protestants such as Lutherans use the term "heterodox" Fact|date=January 2008 (Gr. hetero - other, and doxa - teaching) to describe Christian teachings which are not in agreement with their understanding of scripture. No true Christian denomination knowingly embraces a fallacy, but instead truly believes that their interpretation of scriptures is "orthodox" (Gr. ortho - correct, and doxa - teaching). Thus, other Christian (Catholic, Orthodox or Protestant) denominations with different teachings which are not heretical are considered heterodox.
The term "heterodox" is occasionally used by some Christians to refer to themselves when they are in disagreement with
orthodoxunderstandings, but voice this disagreement while still maintaining the overall value of the tradition. The heterodox Christian therefore remains in the tradition and attempts to stimulate constructive dialog around issues with which they disagree.
Political usage against religion
In late 1999 legislation was created in China to outlaw "heterodox religions". [Leung, Beatrice (2002) 'China and Falun Gong: Party and society relations in the modern era', Journal of Contemporary China, 11:33, 761 – 784] This was applied retroactively to
Falun Gong, a spiritual practice introduced to the public in China by Li Hongzhi （李洪志） in 1992. [ [http://www.cecc.gov/pages/roundtables/052305/Ownby.php Statement of Professor David Ownby] , Unofficial Religions in China: Beyond the Party's Rules, 2005]
* [http://dictionary.reference.com/wordoftheday/archive/2004/04/28.html Heterodox - the word of the day]
* [http://www.orgs.bucknell.edu/afee/hetecon.htm Heterodox Economics]
* [http://www.open.ac.uk/socialsciences/hetecon/ Open University Heterodox Economics]
* [http://www.reclaimingwalther.org/articles/pieperohcintro.htm Orthodox vs Heterodox Churches]
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