- Bach flower remedies
Bach flower remedies are dilutions of
flowermaterial developed by Edward Bach, an English physician and homeopath, in the 1930s. [As Edward Bach's family name is pronounced "Batch" (IPA| [bætʃ] ), rather than "Bark", they are correctly spoken of as "Batch flower remedies", rather than "Bark flower remedies".] The remedies are used primarily for emotional and spiritual conditions, including but not limited to depression, anxiety, insomniaand stress.
The remedies contain a very small amount of flower material in a 50:50 solution of water and
brandy. Because the remedies are extremely dilute they do not have a characteristic scent or taste of the plant. Vendors state that the remedies contain something called the "energetic signature" of the flower, and that this can be transmitted to the user.
Controlled clinical studies of the remedies have generally found the flower remedies to be no more effective than a
Each remedy is used alone or in conjunction with other remedies, and each flower is believed by advocates to impart specific qualities to the remedy. Bach flower remedies are also used on
pets and domestic animals. Remedies are usually taken orally.
Remedies may be prescribed by a
naturopathor doctor, or recommended by a trained Bach flower practitioner after an interview. An individual may also choose the combination they feel best suits their situation. Some vendors recommend dowsingto select a remedy.
The most well known flower remedy is the "Rescue Remedy" combination, which contains an equal amount each of
Rock rose, Impatiens, Clematis, Star of Bethlehem and Cherry Plumremedies. The product is aimed at treating stress, anxiety, and panic attacks, especially in emergencies. Rescue Remedy is a trade mark and other companies produce the same formula under other names, such as Five Flower Remedy.
"Rescue Cream" contains the same remedies in a cream form, with the addition of
Crab Apple, the only one of Bach's remedies that works directly on the physical body as well as with the emotions, to be applied externally to treat minor skin problems such as itches, cuts, stings, pimples and burns.
Research on the effects of a particular remedy is done by case reporting with consensus review by other users. For example, one person will report that using a particular remedy seemed to help with 'X', then other users will then focus on that same condition either in treating themselves or patients, and will report findings. Results found in this manner are often skewed by a
confirmation bias, a tendency to search for or interpret new information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions and avoid information and interpretations which contradict prior beliefs.
Rather than being based on medical research, using the
scientific method, Bach's flower remedies were intuitively derived [cite book
last = Graham
first = Helen
title = Complementary Therapies in Context: The Psychology of Healing
publisher = Jessica Kingsley Publishers
year = 1999
pages = 254
isbn = 1853026409] and based on his perceived
psychicconnections to the plants.cite book |author=Wood, Matthew |title=Vitalism: The History of Herbalism, Homeopathy and Flower Essences |publisher=North Atlantic Books |location=Richmond, Calif |year=2000 |isbn=1-55643-340-9] p.185 If he felt a negative emotion, he would hold his hand over different plants, and if one alleviated the emotion, he would ascribe the power to heal that emotional problem to that plant. He believed that early morning sunlight passing through dew-drops on flower petals transferred the healing power of the flower onto the watercite book
author= Larimore Walt, O'Mathuna Donal
title=Alternative medicine: The Christian handbook, updated and expanded
location=Grand Rapids, Mich
oclc=] , so he would collect the dew drops from the plants and preserve the dew with an equal amount of
brandyto produce a mother tincture which would be further diluted before use. [cite book
title=An introduction to complementary medicine
publisher=Allen & Unwin Academic
oclc=] Later, he found that the amount of dew he could collect was not sufficient, so he would suspend flowers in spring water and allow the sun's rays to pass through them.
Rather than recognizing the role of
germ theory of disease, defective organs and/or tissue, and other known and demonstrable sources of disease, Bach thought that of illness as the result of "a contradiction between the purposes of the soul and the personality's point of view." This internal war, according to Bach, leads to negative moods and energy blocking, which causes a lack of "harmony," thus leading to physical diseases. Bach advertised his remedies in two daily newspapers, but since his practices did not follow any scientific protocol, and his methods were not understood, the General Medical Councildisapproved of his advertising. For example, in his treatise "Heal Thyself" he wrote::"Disease will never be cured or eradicated by present materialistic methods, for the simple reason that disease in its origin is not material . . . Disease is in essence the result of conflict between the Soul and Mind and will never be eradicated except by spiritual and mental effort."
Edward Bach thought that dew collected from the flowers of plants contains some of the properties of the plant, and that it was more potent on flowers grown in the sun. As it was impractical to collect dew in quantity, he decided to pick flowers and steep them in a bowl of water under sunlight. If this is impractical due to lack of sunlight or other reasons the flowers may be boiled.
The result of this process is what he called "mother tincture", which is further diluted before sale or use.
Bach was satisfied with the method, because of its simplicity, and because it involved a process of combination of the
The earth to nurture the plant, the air from which it feeds, the sun or fire to enable it to impart its power, and water to collect and be enriched with its beneficient magnetic healing [cite book
last = Barnard
title =Bach Flower Remedies
publisher =Lindisfarne Books
Location =Great Barrington, MA
isbn = 1584200243] .
Bach flower remedies are not dependent on the theory of
successive dilutions, and are not based on the Law of Similars of Homeopathy. The Bach remedies, unlike homeopathic remedies, are all derived from non-toxic substances, with the idea that a "positive energy" can redirect or neutralize "negative energy".
Bach flower remedies are produced by several companies around the world. The
British Association of Flower Essence Producers(BAFEP) list at least 6 companies located on the United Kingdom. It also lists several other essence producers. [ cite web|url=http://bafep.com/producers.cfm |title=AFEP - Essence Producers |accessdate=2008-09-01 ]
Nelsons is an important producer of Bach flower remedies. They are licensed by the Bach Centre, which business was acquired in 1993 by Nelsons.The Bach Centre page about Nelsons http://www.bachcentre.com/other/nelsons.htm] cite web|url=http://www.answers.com/topic/a-nelson-co-ltd |title=A. Nelson & Co. Limited: Information from Answers.com |accessdate=2008-09-01 |last=Cohen |first=M.L. ] [ cite web|url=http://www.drbach.co.uk/dredwardbach/thebachcentre/index.php |title=The Bach Centre |accessdate=2008-09-01 ] [ cite web|url=http://www.bachflowertherapy.com/dredwardbach/thebachcentre/index.php |title=The Bach Centre |accessdate=2008-09-02 ] cite court
litigants=HEALING HERBS LIMITED vs. BACH FLOWER REMEDIES LIMITED
court=High Court of England, Chancery Division - Patents Court
Another important producer in the UK is
Healing Herbs Ltd.
In the late 1990s, Nelsons and
Healing Herbs Ltd' Julian Barnard faced a legal dispute concerning the 'Bach flower remedies' and 'Bach' trademarks. In 1998, the High Court in London decided that 'Bach' and 'Bach flower remedies' are generics and cannot be used as registered trademarks. This was upheld in 1999 by the Court of Appeals, in 2000 in the House of Lords and in Europe by the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Marketin 2008. empty] cite book | last = Barnard | first = Julian | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Bach Flower Remedies Form and Function | publisher = Lindisfarne Books | date = 2004-04-30 | location = | pages = 308-309 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 978-1584200246 ] [ cite web|url=http://www.fesflowers.com/faq_barnard.htm |title=FES - About the Barnards and Healing Herbs Remedies |accessdate=2008-09-01 ] empty] [ cite web|url=http://www.edwardbach.org/Research/docs/legal/sept08_full.pdf |title=The OHIM Decision of 09/09/2008 |accessdate=2008-09-01 ]
A recent database review of randomized trials concluded:
"The hypothesis that flower remedies are associated with effects beyond a placebo response is not supported by data from rigorous clinical trials." [cite journal
author = E. Ernst
title = "Flower remedies": a systematic review of the clinical evidence
journal = Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
volume = 114
issue = 23-24
pages = 963–966
date = December 30 2002
pmid = 12635462 ]
All randomized double-blind studies, whether finding for or against the remedies, have suffered from small sample sizes but the studies using the best methodology were the ones that found no effect over
placebo. [cite journal
author = H. Walach, C. Rilling, U. Engelke
title = Efficacy of Bach-flower remedies in test anxiety: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with partial crossover
journal = Journal of Anxiety Disorders
volume = 15
issue = 4
pages = 359–366
month = July | year = 2001
id = 11474820
doi = 10.1016/S0887-6185(01)00069-X] [cite journal
author = Pintov S, Hochman M, Livne A, Heyman E, Lahat E
title = Bach flower remedies used for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children — a prospective double blind controlled study
journal =European Journal of Paediatric Neurology
doi = 10.1016/j.ejpn.2005.08.001]
According to those skeptical of the remedies, the most likely means of action for flower remedies is as
placebos, enhanced by introspectionon the patient's emotional state, or simply being listened to by the practitioner. The act of selecting and taking a remedy may act as a calming ritual.
List of Bach flower remedies
Dr. Edward Bach Centre, which is the Centre founded by Dr Bach to promote and preserve his work, presents this [http://www.gaiagarden.com/articles/healthnotes/hn_bach_flower_remedies.php list of the thirty eight remedies] discovered by Dr Bach and directed at a specific characteristic or emotional state.
Agrimony– mental torture behind a cheerful face
Aspen– fearof unknown things
Centaury– inability to say 'no'
Cerato– lack of trust in one's own decisions
Cherry Plum– fear of the mindgiving way
# Chestnut Bud (made with horse chestnut "buds") – failure to learn from mistakes
Chicory– selfish, possessive love
Clematis– dreaming of the futurewithout working in the present
Crab Apple– cleansing remedy, also for self-hatred
Elm– overwhelmed by responsibility
Gentian– discouragement after a setback
Gorse– hopelessness and
Heather– self-centeredness and self-concern
Holly– hatred, envy and jealousy
Honeysuckle– living in the past
Hornbeam– procrastination, tiredness at the thought of doing something
Larch– lack of confidenceand self-esteem
Mimulus– fear of known things
# Mustard – deep gloom for no reason
Oak– the plodder who keeps going past the point of exhaustion
Olive– exhaustion following mental or physical effort
# Red Chestnut (a type of horse chestnut) – over-concern for the welfare of loved ones
# Rock Rose – terror and fright
# Rock Water – self-denial, rigidity and self-repression
Scleranthus– inability to choose between alternatives
# Star of Bethlehem – shock
Sweet Chestnut– Extreme mental anguish, when everything has been tried and there is no light left
Vine– dominance and inflexibility
Walnut– protection from change and unwanted influences
Water Violet– pride and aloofness
# White Chestnut (made with horse chestnut "blossoms") – unwanted thoughts and mental arguments
Wild Oat– uncertainty over one's direction in life
Wild Rose– drifting, resignation, apathy
Willow– self-pity and resentment
Other flower remedies or essences
Makers of "flower remedies" all over the world have created thousands of additional remedies based on the original principles invented by Bach. The term "flower essences" is also commonly used these days, especially when referring to the non-Bach flower essences being made. Along with the sun-bowl method of preparation pioneered by Bach, a few other techniques have been developed, including some non-cutting methods.
Currently over 400 small (i.e., one or two people) to medium (i.e., up to fifteen or so employees) flower essence makers are active around the world, from Alaska to Australia, Brazil and India. In Britain alone over sixty different makers are registered with the British Association of Flower Essence Producers (BAFEP).
Some makers produce other kinds of what they call "vibrational essences," using sources such as minerals/gemstones, nonflowering plants, sea life, mushrooms, cacti, metals, intuitive methods, and natural environments.
Australian bush flower essences
Depression and natural therapies
* [http://bachcentre.com/ Website of The Bach Centre]
* [http://www.edwardbach.org Bach Flower Research Programme]
* [http://www.flowersociety.org/ Flower Essence Society - California]
* [http://www.hpathy.com/bachflower/ Bach Flower Remedies] - introduction, history, materia medica & clinical classification at Hpathy.com
* [http://www.bachwiki.com Bach Wiki] the free encyclopedia about Bach Flower Remedies and Essences
* [http://feelbach.com Personal Bach Remedy] Questionnaires, Bach flower remedies, FAQ
* [http://www.fesflowers.com Flower Essence Society home page] . Includes Bach's original 38 flowers.
* [http://www.specialneedspets.org/flowers.htm Bach Flower Remedy for Pets] Information on using Bach Flowers to help animals deal with stress, fear, trauma, and a variety of other emotional issues.
* [http://www.bachfloweronline.com/book.html Free book - A Guide to Bach Flower Remedies]
* [http://www.bachfloweronline.com/repertory.html Free book - A Short Repertory of Bach Flower Remedies]
* [http://www.edwardbach.org/research/booksHome.asp Edward Bach's Original Writings available to download free]
* [http://www.skepdic.com/bachflower.html Skeptic's Dictionary on Bach Flower therapy]
* [http://www.whonamedit.com/synd.cfm/300.html Sceptic Information from WhoNamedIt.com]
* [http://skepdic.com/homeo.html Homeopathy explored by the Skeptic's Dictionary]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17631260?dopt=Abstract National Center for Biotechnology Information] : "Do Bach flower remedies have a role to play in pain control? A critical analysis investigating therapeutic value beyond the placebo effect, and the potential of Bach flower remedies as a psychological method of pain relief.""
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12635462&dopt=Abstract National Institutes of Health] : "Bach Flower Remedies no more effective than Placebo"
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=17324684&dopt=Citation Journal of Psychosomatic Research] : "Personality traits predict response to Bach flower remedies"
* [http://www.rescueremedy.co.uk Rescue Remedy (UK)]
* [http://www.healingherbs.co.uk/fiveflower.asp Five Flower Remedy (UK)]
* [http://www.rescueremedy.com Rescue Remedy (US)]
* [http://www.balancingblooms.co.uk Balancing Blooms (UK)]
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