- Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
Name = thyrotropin-releasing hormone
Structural formulaof TRH
width = 200
HGNCid = 12298
Symbol = TRH
EntrezGene = 7200
OMIM = 275120
RefSeq = NM_007117
UniProt = P20396
Chromosome = 3
Arm = q
Band = 13.3
LocusSupplementaryData = -q21
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF), thyroliberin or protirelin, is a tropic tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of
thyroid-stimulating hormoneand prolactinby the anterior pituitary.
TRH is produced by the
hypothalamusin medial neurons of the paraventricular nucleus. [cite journal |author=Taylor T, Wondisford F, Blaine T, Weintraub B |title=The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus has a major role in thyroid hormone feedback regulation of thyrotropin synthesis and secretion |journal=Endocrinology |volume=126 |issue=1 |pages=317–24 |year=1990 |pmid=2104587] Initially, it is synthesized as a 242 amino acid precursor polypeptide that contains 6 copies of the sequence -Glu-His-Pro-Gly-, flanked by di-basic peptides that are later processed through proteolysis to give the mature TRH molecule.
It travels across the
median eminenceto the anterior pituitary gland via the hypophyseal portal systemwhere it stimulates the release of thyroid stimulating hormonefrom cells called thyrotropes. [ [http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/hypopit/tsh.html Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone ] ]
In addition to the brain, TRH can also be detected in other areas of the body including the
gastrointestinal systemand pancreatic islets.
The sequence of TRH was first determined and the hormone synthesized by
Roger Guilleminand Andrew V. Schallyin 1969. [Boler J, Enzmann F, Folkers K, Bowers CY, Schally AV. "The identity of chemical and hormonal properties of the thyrotropin releasing hormone and pyroglutamyl-histidyl-proline amide." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1969;37:705-10. PMID 4982117] [Burgus R, Dunn TF, Desiderio D, Guillemin R. "Molecular structure of the hypothalamic hypophysiotropic TRF factor of ovine origin: mass spectrometry demonstration of the PCA-His-Pro-NH2 sequence." Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences 1969;269:1870–1873. ]
Its molecular weight is 359.5 Da.
Its structure is:(pyro)Glu-His-Pro-NH2
It is used in pharmacology (brand name Relefact TRH) to test the response of the
anterior pituitary gland.
Medical preparations of TRH are used in diagnostic tests of
thyroiddisorders and in acromegaly.
A TRH test may be indicated if secondary
hypothyroidismis suspected. Some patients may have low levels of circulating thyroid hormonesand secondary hypothyroidism as a result of damage to the hypothalamic or pituitary control mechanisms that regulate thyroid function. The hypothalamus makes a small hormone called TRH that directs the synthesis and secretion of TSHfrom the pituitary gland. If these normal regulatory mechanisms are interrupted, the pituitary may not be able to produce appropriate levels of TSH and levels of thyroid hormones may decline, although the TSH remains appropriately normal. The TRH test involves administration of a small amount of TRH intravenously, following which levels of TSH will be measured at several subsequent time points using samples of blood taken from a peripheral vein. Patients with normal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) respond by increasing the levels of TSH following TRH injection. Patients with compromised HPA function may exhibit a delayed, blunted, or absent response to TRH administration. TRH may cause nausea, vomiting and some patients experience an urge to urinate. Rarely, TRH may cause blood vessel constriction leading to hemorrhage in patients with pre-existing pituitary tumors. Accordingly, patients should be advised about the risks, albeit rare, of TRH testing. [http://www.mythyroid.com/TRHtest]
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor
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