- Gold Silver Bronze command structure
A Gold - Silver - Bronze command structure is used by
emergency services of the United Kingdomto establish a hierarchical framework for the command and control of major incidents and disasters. Some practitioners use the term Strategic - Tactical - Operational instead, but the categories are equivalent. [ [http://www.leslp.gov.uk/ London Emergency Services Liaison Panel: Major Incident Procedure Manual 7th ed (accessed 27 Jul 07)] ]
Whilst this system does not explicitly signify hierarchy of rank, with the roles not being rank-specific, invariably the
chain of commandwill be the same as the order of rank. Whilst the Gold - Silver - Bronze command structure was designed for emergencies, it has been successfully utilised for all manner of pre-planned operations, such as football matches or firearms operations, such as Operation Kratos.
The structure was created by the UK
Metropolitan Policein 1985 directly after a serious riot in North London on the evening of 6 Octoberwhere Police Constable Keith Blakelockwas murdered. Scotland Yardsoon realised that their usual rank based command system was inappropriate for sudden events. For example, it was never clear who was actually in operational charge of the police that fateful night. A small team led by Inspector Peter Power quickly decided that three essential roles were more important than numerous ranks in these situations and set about creating and promulgating a new structure with an eponymous title that was soon rolled out across all UK Police Forces and became the ubiquitous command standard it is today.
The Gold Commander is in overall control of their organisation's resources at the incident. They will not be on site, but at a distant control room, Gold Command, where they will formulate the strategy for dealing with the incident. If the Gold Commanders for various organisations at an incident are not co-located, they will be in constant touch with each other by videoconference or
The Silver Commander is the tactical commander who manages the strategic direction from Gold and make them into sets of actions that are completed by Bronze. They are not located at the scene normally as they need to be able to take a step back and review all the different Bronze resourcing. They will work in closely with other agency Silver Commander but may well be in command of their resources in order to achieve the Gold Strategy. They can sometimes be in purpose-built command vehicles, at the Joint Emergency Services Control Centre (JESCC). This is not common. They will not become directly involved in dealing with the incident itself. This role is often not strictly rank related but does often fall to senior officers as opposed to PC / Sgt level.
A "Bronze Commander" directly controls the organisations resources at the incident and will be found with their staff working at the scene. They will be under the main control of the police normally, unless it is a Fire and Rescue led incident, irrespective of what organisation they work for. This is to ensure safety and efficiency of all involved as far as possible. If an incident is widespread geographically, different Bronzes may assume responsibility for different locations. If the incident is of a complex nature - which is most common, different Bronzes are given their own tasks or responsibilities at an incident. E.g. taking statements, cordon management, survivor management.
In the United Kingdom the principle of police primacy means that the police will be the organisation in ultimate charge of the incident, over the other organisations that may attend. Limited exceptions to this occurs if the incident involves a
fireor other dangerous hazard, in which case the fire service will have overall charge of the area inside the inner cordonwhere firefighting or rescue is taking place and railway accidents, where primacy (if there is no apparent evidence of serious criminality) will lie with the Rail Accident Investigation Branch.
This principle is in place because the structure was first created by the UK Metropolitan police. Another reason for police primacy relates to communications and support infrastructure that are more abundant and widespread in the police than the other emergency services. However, since the basis of the simple system aims to put the most appropriate person in the right position at the right time, some incidents such as a serious fire could see a senior fire fighter adopt the role of Gold for as long as the main task remains extinguishing the fire, as opposed to investigation, etc.
The command structure in practice
The 2005 Buncefield fire can be used as one of many examples to show how the command structure functions. After the explosions on Sunday
11 December 2005, the strategic operation to bring the incident under control was located at Hertfordshire Constabulary's headquarters in Welwyn Garden City- some distance from the incident. Hertfordshire Fire and Rescue Service's Chief Fire Officer(CFO) Roy Wilsher was based at gold command "within one hour of the incident". [ [http://www.hertsdirect.org/infobase/docs/pdfstore/buncinfo.pdf Herts Direct: In Focus - special edition - Buncefield (accessed 12 Dec 06)] ,]
The location of silver command was initially located close to the incident then moved to
Watford. Fact|date=February 2007
Bronze, was situated on the fire ground and was a
Hertsfire service control unit. Each of the services had its own senior officers who assumed the roles of gold, silver and bronze.
During the first three days of the fire, the gold command committee met at 1100hrs and 1400hrs, each session was usually followed by a media briefing. The command meetings were attended by the commanders of the main emergency services, local authority, health and safety officials and civilian press officers from the emergency services.
Major Incident Plan
Incident Command System
Control of Major Accident Hazards
* Wiltshire Police: [http://www.wiltshire.police.uk/mip/commandstr.asp Major incident planning: Command structure]
* London Emergency Services Liaison Panel: [http://www.leslp.gov.uk/ LESLP]
* Suffolk County Council: [http://www.suffolkcc.gov.uk/fire_service/emergency_plans/calor.html Control of major accident hazards]
* Government Office for the South East: [http://www.go-se.gov.uk/gose/prepForEmergencies/response/?a=42496 Preparing for Emergencies - Response]
* Government Office for the South East: [http://www.go-se.gov.uk/gose/prepForEmergencies/prepForEmergenciesNatPic/responseNatPic/ Response: the National Picture]
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