Savonian dialects

Savonian dialects

The Savonian dialects are forms of Finnish language spoken in Savonia and other parts of Eastern Finland. It belongs to the Eastern Finnish dialects and it is divided to more specific dialect groups.

Savonian dialects are the most largely distributed dialects of Finnish. They are spoken in the Savonia region (Northern and Southern), but also in North Karelia, the main part of Päijät-Häme, Central Finland, Kainuu, Koillismaa district of Northern Ostrobothnia, the lake section between Southern and Central Ostrobothnia as far north as Evijärvi and in the municipalities of Pudasjärvi and the Southern part of Ranua. Also the language spoken by forest settlers in Värmland of Central Scandinavia belonged to the old Savonian dialects. The area of Savonian dialects consist one third of the whole area of Finland.


Savo has affected the standard language very little — standard Finnish is mostly based on the Western dialects, where particularly the Häme dialect is barely distinguishable from standard spoken Finnish. The Savonian dialects are possibly of different origin than Western Finnish dialects, originating from the eastern dialect of the Proto-Baltic-Finnic language rather than the western dialect.


Although the Savonian dialects are spread into a large geographical area with significant variations, they are rather different from the standard language and are recognized as a local dialects. There are large variations between different Savonian dialects, but a few of the most stereotypical features are:
*Re-development of palatalized consonants from consonant + i, which is denoted by digraphs with a 'j', e.g. IPA|/kotʲ/, IPA|/moottorʲ/ (standard Finnish , ).
*Some long vowels and diphthongs have shifted with respect to the standard language; thus, where the standard language has a diphthong, Savo may have a long vowel, and vice versa.
**Stressed (initial-syllable) IPA|/ɑː æː/ become opening difthongs, first IPA|/oɑ eæ/, and in most varieties further IPA|/uɑ iæ/. E.g. "mua" for Standard Finnish "maa" "land, country, ground", or "piä" for "pää" "head".
**IPA|/i/ as the 2nd element of a diphthong lowers to IPA|/e/, e.g. "laeta" for "laita" "side", "söe" for "söi" "ate".
**IPA|/u y/ lower similarly to IPA|/o ø/ or they may assimilate completely to produce a long vowel, e.g. "kaoppa" or "kaappa" for "kauppa" "store", "täönnä" or "täännä" for "täynnä" "full".
**When unstressed, the bisyllabic combination of "o/ö/e + a/ä" is smoothed to a monosyllabic long vowel. E.g. "ruskee" for "ruskea" "brown", "kyntöö" for "kyntöä" "plowing (partitive case)". (This change is not specific to Savonian dialects and is found in most forms of Spoken Finnish today.)
*Word-medial simple consonants are geminated before a short initial syllable. A native Savonian doesn't say he speaks "savoa", he says he speaks "savvoo".
*The combined effect of the three features above is referred to as "crooked chin" ("viäräleuka" cf. standard "vääräleuka"). Whereas standard Finnish has a "declarative" rhythm, Savo has an "expressive" rhythm. The different way of producing speech is noticeable even if the speaker speaks perfect standard Finnish.
*The glottal stop replaces word-final /n/, a trait common to many other Finnish varieties.
*All syllable-initial consonants except the last one (which contacts the nucleic vowel) are systematically and completely removed in loans, e.g. "traktori" as "raktorj".
*An epenthetic vowel is inserted after a medial syllable coda of /l/, /h/ or, in certain cases, /n/, e.g. "vanaha". This vowel is identical in quality to the preceding vowel. The resulting medial consonant is exempt from gemination.

It is also a particularly creative variety of Finnish. Although standard and known elsewhere, the usage of verb compounds is particularly prevalent in Savo Finnish and a prolific source of creative expressions. The first verb is in the infinitive and indicates the action, and the second verb is declined and indicates the manner. For example, "seistä toljotat" "you stand there gawking" consists of words meaning "to-stand you-gawk".

avonian dialects

Northern Savonian dialects

Northern Savonian dialects are spoken in the municipalities of Hankasalmi (Eastern part), Haukivuori, Heinävesi, Iisalmi, Joroinen, Jäppilä, Kaavi, Kangaslampi, Karttula, Keitele, Kiuruvesi, Konnevesi, (Eastern part), Kuopio, Lapinlahti, Leppävirta, Maaninka, Muuruvesi (part of Juankoski since 1971),Nilsiä, Pieksämäki, Pielavesi, Pyhäsalmi, Rantasalmi, Rautalampi, Riistavesi (part of Kuopio since 1973), Siilinjärvi, Sonkajärvi, Suonenjoki, Säyneinen (part of Juankoski since 1971),Tervo, Tuusniemi, Varpaisjärvi, Vehmersalmi, Vesanto, Vieremä and Virtasalmi.

outhern Savonian dialects

Southern Savonian dialects are spoken in the municipalities of Anttola, Hirvensalmi, Juva, Kangasniemi, Mikkeli, Mäntyharju, Pertunmaa, (Eastern part) Puumala, Ristiina, Sulkava and Suomenniemi.

Middle dialects of Savonlinna area

Middle dialects of Savonlinna area are spoken in the Eastern Savonia, the municipalities surrounding the city of Savonlinna between Southern Savonia and North Karelia: Enonkoski, Kerimäki, Punkaharju, Savonranta and Sääminki (part of Punkaharju and Savonlinna since 1973).

The dialect spoken in Enonkoski has many similarities with the dialects of Northern Savo, while the dialect spoken in the Southern parts of Punkaharju resembles South-Eastern dialects in many ways. The difference between dialects in Savonlinna district has its roots in the colonization history. The area of greater Kerimäki (which consisted Enonkoski, Punkaharju and Savonranta) was settled by Karelian people till 1500s, but from 1300s the Savonian has started to settle to the Eastern side of Lake Pihlajavesi and the coasts of Puruvesi.

The differences between natural and governmental borders goes together in many ways. In Enonkoski the dialect is more Savonian in the Northern side of Hanhivirta. The other reason to this is that the Northern villages of Enonkoski belonged to Heinävesi in 1800s, while the Southern villages were part of Kerimäki. The Northern border of Puruvesi goes through Lake Puruvesi. So the old Karelian-based dialect features have kept in Punkaharju much better than in Kerimäki, which is located in the Northern side of Puruvesi.

Eastern Savonian dialects or the dialects of North Karelia

Eastern Savonian dialects or the dialects of North Karelia are spoken in North Karelia in the municipalities of Eno, Ilomantsi, Joensuu, Juuka, Kesälahti, Kiihtelysvaara (now part of Joensuu), Kitee, Kontiolahti, Korpiselkä (now part of Russia, little part of Tohmajärvi since 1946), Outokumpu, Liperi, Nurmes, Pielisjärvi (part of Lieksa since 1973), Polvijärvi, Pyhäselkä, Pälkjärvi (now part of Russia, little part of Tohmajärvi since 1946), Rautavaara, Ruskeala (now part of Russia), Soanlahti, Tohmajärvi, Tuupovaara (now part of Joensuu) and Valtimo.

Dialects of Kainuu

Kainuu dialects are spoken in Hyrynsalmi, Kajaani, Kuhmo, Kuusamo, Paltamo, Posio, Pudasjärvi Puolanka, Ranua (Southern part), Ristijärvi, Sotkamo, Suomussalmi, Taivalkoski and Vaala.

Dialects of Middle Finland

Dialects of Middle Finland are spoken in Hankasalmi (Western part), Karstula, Kinnula, Kivijärvi, Konginkangas (part of Äänekoski since 1993), Konnevesi (Western part), Kyyjärvi, Laukaa, Multia, Pihtipudas, Pylkönmäki, Saarijärvi, Sumiainen, Uurainen, Viitasaari and Äänekoski.

Dialects of Päijät-Häme

Päijät-Häme Savonian dialects are spoken in Joutsa, Jyväskylä, Jämsä, Korpilahti, Koskenpää (part of Jämsänkoski since 1969), Kuhmoinen, Leivonmäki, Luhanka, Muurame, Pertunmaa (Western part), Petäjävesi, Sysmä and Toivakka.

Middle dialects of Keuruu-Evijärvi

Middle dialects of Keuruu-Evijärvi are spoken in Alajärvi, Evijärvi, Keuruu, Lappajärvi, Lehtimäki, Pihlajavesi, Soini, Vimpeli and Ähtäri. This sub-dialect area is wedge shaped in the middle of Ostrobotnia, which has its own dialects and also Swedish-speaking population. This is the influence of Savonian slash and burn farmers who colonized the lake section in Ostrobothnio in the 1600s.

Värmland Savonian dialects

The expansion on Savonian slash and burn agriculture, which started in the beginning of Modern era, expanded to the Central Scandinavia. Mostly in the beginning of 1600s Savonian settlers, mainly from the parish of Rautalampi, settled in Värmland, Sweden. In the beginning of 1800s tens of thousands of people spoke Savonian language as their mother tongue. These "Forest Finns" were interesting group from the linguistic point of view because their language was kept safe from other influences. The slash and burn in Sweden was prohibited in the middle of 1600s and no new Finnish settler moved to the area. So the language of Forest Finns lacked the Schwa vocal and gemination, which are used now in the dialect spoken in Rautalampi. Nowadays the Savonian dialect of Värmland is extinct. The last Savonian speakers were Johannes Johansson-Oinonen (died in 1965) and Karl Persson (died 1969).


Verjnuarmu is a band — the first and only one — playing melodic death metal in the Savo dialect. Described as "combin [ing] the very beautiful dialect of Savo with the heavy doomsday music" ("yhistää mussiikissaan savon ylen kaaniin murteen raskaaseen tuomijopäevän soetantaan"). Jaakko Teppo is a famous Savonian musician and social critic who uses Savonian language in his lyrics.



External links

* [ Tavvoo savvoo]

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