Hung Yen Province

Hung Yen Province

Infobox province of Vietnam
Name = Hưng Yên
Meaning = Idyllic Prosperity

Council Chair = Phạm Đình Phú
Committee Chair = Nguyễn Đình Phách
Capital = Hưng Yên
Region = Red River Delta
Area = 923.1
Population = 1,120,300
Population year = 2004
Population density = 1,214
Ethnicities = Vietnamese, Tày, Nùng, Hoa
Calling code = 321
ISO code = VN-66
Website =

Hưng Yên Province (Hán tự: ) is a province in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam.

:Capital: Hưng Yên City:Population: 1,091,000:Area: 928 km²

Administrative divisions

The province comprises one city (Hưng Yên) and nine districts:

#Ân Thi
#Khoái Châu
#Kim Động
#Mỹ Hào
#Phù Cừ
#Tiên Lữ
#Văn Giang
#Văn Lâm
#Yên Mỹ


Feudal dynasties
The land of Hung Yen was inhabited by human beings a long time ago, along with the building-up of the Red River.During Hung Kings period, Hung Yen belonged to Giao Chi area, Du Chien district. Under the Ngo dynasty, it was called Dang Chau. It was then renamed Thai Binh phu (phu is an administrative unit) under the Former Le dynasty, Dang Chau and Khoai Chau phu under the Ly dynasty and Long Hung lo (lo is an administrative unit) and Khoai lo under the Tran dynasty. Under the Late Le dynasty, Hung Yen belonged to Son Nam and then divided into Son Nam Thuong lo and Son Nam Ha lo.

The Nguyen dynasty implemented administrative reforms in 1831 to dismantle tran (tran is an administrative unit) and establish provinces. Five districts of Dong Yen, Kim Dong, Thien Thi, Phu Cu and Tien Lu were separated from Khoai Chau phu of Son Nam Thuong tran and three districts of Than Khe, Duyen Ha and Hung Nhan were separated from Tien Hung phu of Nam Dinh tran of lower Son Nam town to establish Hung Yen province. The initial center of the province was located in An Vu and Luong Dien communes and then moved to Nhi Tan of Xich Dang commune (now Hung Yen town). This area has favourable transport conditions with communes and markets lying side by side, enabling trading activities to be busier and busier. "The streets are very busy and bustle, crowded with vehicles; the old images of Pho Hien in Son Nam can been seen now in this land" (extracted from Chronicle of Hung yen province).

French Colonization

The name Hung Yen officially appeared in the directory of the country in 1831. For that reason, prior to the French invasion into Vietnam, Hung Yen was a province located on both sides of the Luoc River. Since its establishment, the province's territory has changed many times.
On March 27, 1833, French troops led by Captain Henri Riviere moved along the Red River from Hanoi and defeated Nam Dinh citadel. He then demanded Sub lieutenant De Trentinian to lead a unit of troops to attack Hung Yen citadel. After the occupying Hung Yen, they made many efforts to strengthen their henchmen government and establish various troop stations on one hand while speeding up the measuring and mapping work for deep involvement into communes and hamlets. However, they met many difficulties as confronting resistance by the Bai Say Revolt. In 1890, the French set up the Bai Say area consisting of Yen My, Yen Hao, Van Lam and Cam Luong districts for the purpose of easier suppression. After the failure of the Bai Say rebellion, they merged Van Lam, Yen My and Yen Hao districts into Hung Yen province and returned Cam Luong district (now Cam Giang) to Hai Duong province.
Also in 1890, the French split Than Khe district from Tien Hung phu of Hung Yen province and Thai Binh phu and Kien Xuong phu from Nam Dinh province and set up a new province called Thai Binh. Afterwards, they went on to cut Hung Nhan and Duyen Ha districts and transferred Tien Lu district (formerly belonging to Tien Hung area) to merge into Khoai Chau phu. Ever since, the Luoc river has served as the natural border between Hung Yen and Thai Binh. This period last from the French colonization to the August Revolution in 1945.

Modern Vietnam
When the anti-French resistance war was won and peace was restored in the north, district-level administrative units remained unchanged, except the changes in the administrative names of some wards and communes.
On January 26, 1968, the Standing Committee of the National Assembly approved a resolution on the unification Hai Duong and Hung Yen into Hai Hung province. After that, Van Giang and Yen My districts were unified into Van Yen district; Tien Lu and Phu Cu districts were unified into Phu Tien district; Van Lam and My Hao districts were unified into Van My; Kim Dong and An Thi districts were unified into Kim Thi district. Van Yen and Van My districts were unified into My Van; Khoai Chau district and a part of Van Giang district were unified into Chau Giang district
On November 6, 1996, the National Assembly approved the division of Hai Hung into Hai Duong and Hung Yen. After that, the unified districts were split as the former administrative units.
Hung Yen now has ten district and town-level administrative units: Hung Yen town, districts of Van Lam, Van Giang, My Hao, Yen My, Khoai Chau, An Thi, Kim Dong, Tien Lu and Phu Cu with 161 communes, districts and towns.

Natural conditions

Hung Yen is a province located in the Red River Delta, in the Northern Focal Economic Zone and the Hanoi-Hai Phong-Quang Ninh Economic Triangle.
The eastern gate of Hanoi, Hung Yen has 23km of the 5A National Highway and over 20km of the Hanoi-Hai Phong railway route. In addition, national highways of 39A and 38, which are prolonged from the National Highway 5, passing by Hung Yen town, running to the National Highway 1A through Yen Lenh Bridge and to the National Highway 10 through Trieu Duong Bridge. This is an important transportation axis linking southwestern provinces in the Northern Delta (Ha Nam, Ninh Binh, Nam Dinh, Thanh Hoa…) with Hai Duong, Hai Phong and Quang Ninh provinces.
Hung Yen is nearby Hai Phong and Cai Lan seaports and Noi Bai international airports. It has border with Hanoi and the provinces of Bac Ninh, Ha Tay, Ha Nam, Thai Binh and Hai Duong.

Like other provinces in the Red River Delta, Hung Yen is also affected by the hot and damp tropical monsoon climate. Every year, there are two separate hot and cold seasons in the province. The Sun illuminates average 1,519 hours per year and the average number of sunny days is per month is 24. The average temperature is 23.2 °C in the summer and 16 °C in the winter.
The average rainfall is between 1,450 and 1,650 mm and the rainfall from May to October accounts up to 70% of the year's total. The average humidity in the air is 86%; the highest level of humidity is 92% while the lowest level is 79%.

Natural resources
Hung Yen has the feature of a delta province: flat topography without hills and mountains. The province's land area for agriculture covers 61,037 hectares, of which 55,645ha (accounting 91% of the total) are for yearly cultivation; and the remaining for long-day plant cultivation, aquaculture water surface, specialized cultivation and other purposes. The area of unused natural land is about 7,471 hectares, which are all available for agricultural production and development.
Hung Yen has a plentiful fresh water source because it is surrounded by Hong river and Luoc river. Its underground water source is also bountiful with a huge reserve. In the area along the 5A National Highway, from Nhu Quynh to Quan Goi, there lie mammoth underground water mines with a reserve of millions of cubic metres, which not only can supply water for industrial development and urban daily consumption but also can supply a big water volume for neighboring localities.
Hung Yen's brown coal source, which is a part of the brown basin in the Red River Delta and has a 30-billion-tonne reserve, has not been exploited yet. However, this is a big potential to develop the mining industry, meeting the energy demand in the domestic market and export.

Land - Population - Labour Force
* Natural land covers 923.09 km² * Population: 1,116,000 (2003) * Population density: 1,209/km² * The natural population growth rate: 1%/year.
Hung Yen has 57 thousand young and highly-educated people at working age, representing 51% of the provincial population. The number of labourers having attended training courses accounts 25% of the population, mainly of whom are graduates from universities, colleges and high schools; and technical workers. The province's labour force is well-educated, industrious and creative.

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