- Isotopes of helium
Although there are eight known
isotopes of helium(He) (standard atomic mass: 4.002602(2) u), only helium-3(SimpleNuclide|Helium|3) and helium-4(SimpleNuclide|Helium|4) are stable. In the Earth's atmosphere, there is one SimpleNuclide|Helium|3 atom for every million SimpleNuclide|Helium|4 atoms.Emsley, John. "Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements". Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Page 178. ISBN 0-19-850340-7] However, helium is unusual in that its isotopic abundance varies greatly depending on its origin. In the interstellar medium, the proportion of SimpleNuclide|Helium|3 is around a hundred times higher. [ [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/asys/2002/00000045/00000002/00378626] , ingentaconnect.com, Retrieved 5 January 2007] Rocks from the Earth's crust have isotope ratios varying by as much as a factor of ten; this is used in geologyto investigate the origin of rocks and the composition of the Earth's mantle.
The most common isotope, SimpleNuclide|Helium|4, is produced on Earth by
alpha decayof heavier radioactive elements; the alpha particles that emerge are fully ionized SimpleNuclide|Helium|4 nuclei. SimpleNuclide|Helium|4 is an unusually stable nucleus because its nucleons are arranged into complete shells. It was also formed in enormous quantities during Big Bang nucleosynthesis. The different formation processes of the two stable isotopes of helium produce the differing isotope abundances.
Equal mixtures of liquid SimpleNuclide|Helium|3 and SimpleNuclide|Helium|4 below 0.8 K will separate into two immiscible phases due to their dissimilarity (they follow different
quantum statistics: SimpleNuclide|Helium|4 atoms are bosons while SimpleNuclide|Helium|3 atoms are fermions). ["The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements", page 264] Dilution refrigerators take advantage of the immiscibility of these two isotopes to achieve temperatures of a few millikelvins. There is only a trace amount of SimpleNuclide|Helium|3 on Earth, primarily present since the formation of the Earth, although some falls to Earth trapped in cosmic dust. [http://www.mantleplumes.org/HeliumFundamentals.html Helium Fundamentals ] ] Trace amounts are also produced by the beta decayof tritium. [ [http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/Li-pg2.html Periodic Table of Elements: Li - Lithium (EnvironmentalChemistry.com) ] ] In stars, however, SimpleNuclide|Helium|3 is more abundant, a product of nuclear fusion. Extraplanetary material, such as lunar and asteroid regolith, have trace amounts of SimpleNuclide|Helium|3 from being bombarded by solar winds.
Exotic helium isotopes
A subset of
exotic light nuclei, the exotic helium isotopes have larger atomic masses than helium's natural isotopes. Although all exotic helium isotopes decay with a half-lifeof less than one second, researchers have eagerly created exotic light isotopes through particle acceleratorcollisions to create unusual atomic nuclei for elements such as helium, lithium, and nitrogen. The bizarre nuclear structures of such isotopes may offer insight into the isolated properties of neutrons.
The shortest-lived isotope is helium-5 with a
half-lifeof 7.6×10−22 second. Helium-6 decays by emitting a beta particleand has a half life of 0.8 second. Helium-7 also emits a beta particle as well as a gamma ray. The most widely-studied exotic helium isotope is helium-8. This isotope, as well as helium-6, are thought to consist of a normal helium-4 nucleus surrounded by a neutron "halo" (two for SimpleNuclide|Helium|6 and four for SimpleNuclide|Helium|8. Halo nucleihave become an area of intense research. Isotopes up to helium-10, with two protons and "eight" neutrons, have been confirmed. Helium-7 and helium-8 are hyperfragments that are created in certain nuclear reactions. ["The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements", page 260]
Helium-2 is a hypothetical isotope of helium which according to theoretical calculations would have existed if the
strong forcehad been 2% greater.
* The isotopic composition refers to that in air.
* The precision of the isotope abundances and atomic mass is limited through variations. The given ranges should be applicable to any normal terrestrial material.
* Geologically exceptional samples are known in which the isotopic composition lies outside the reported range. The uncertainty in the atomic mass may exceed the stated value for such specimens.
* Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
* Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.
* Isotope masses from [http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/amdc/index.html Ame2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation] by G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon in "Nuclear Physics" A729 (2003).
* Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from [http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/2003/7506/7506x0683.html Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report)] . "Pure Appl. Chem." Vol. 75, No. 6, pp. 683-800, (2003) and [http://www.iupac.org/news/archives/2005/atomic-weights_revised05.html Atomic Weights Revised (2005)] .
* Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from these sources. Editing notes on this article's talk page.
** Audi, Bersillon, Blachot, Wapstra. [http://amdc.in2p3.fr/web/nubase_en.html The Nubase2003 evaluation of nuclear and decay properties] , Nuc. Phys. A 729, pp. 3-128 (2003).
National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Information extracted from the [http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nudat2/ NuDat 2.1 database] (retrieved Sept. 2005).
** David R. Lide (ed.), Norman E. Holden in "CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition", online version. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005). Section 11, Table of the Isotopes.
* [http://www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/General_Tables.shtml General Tables] — abstracts for helium and other exotic light nuclei
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