Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach

Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach

region = Western Philosophy
era = 19th-century philosophy
color = #B0C4DE

image_caption =
name = Ludwig Feuerbach
birth = July 28, 1804 (Landshut, Germany)
death = September 13 1872 (Rechenberg near Nuremberg, Germany)
school_tradition = Young Hegelians
main_interests = Religion
influences = Hegel
influenced = Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Joseph Dietzgen, Martin Buber
notable_ideas = Religion as the outward projection of man's inner nature

Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (July 28, 1804 – September 13, 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist. He was the fourth son of the eminent jurist Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach.



Feuerbach matriculated in the University of Heidelberg with the intention of pursuing a career in the Church. Through the influence of Prof. Karl Daub he was led to an interest in the then predominant philosophy of Hegel and, in spite of his father's opposition, enrolled in the University of Berlin, in order to study under the master himself. After two years' discipleship, the Hegelian influence began to slacken. Feuerbach became associated with a group known as the Young Hegelians, alternately known as the Left Hegelians, who synthesized a radical offshoot of Hegelian philosophy, interpreting Hegel’s dialectic march of spirit through history to mean that existing Western culture and institutional forms—and, in particular, Christianity—would be superseded. "Theology," he wrote to a friend, "I can bring myself to study no more. I long to take nature to my heart, that nature before whose depth the faint-hearted theologian shrinks back; and with nature man, man in his entire quality." These words are a key to Feuerbach's development. He completed his education at Erlangen, at the Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg with the study of natural science.

Early writings

His first book, published anonymously, "Gedanken über Tod und Unsterblichkeit" (1830), contains an attack on personal immortality and an advocacy of the Spinozistic immortality of reabsorption in nature. These principles, combined with his embarrassed manner of public speaking, debarred him from academic advancement. After some years of struggling, during which he published his "Geschichte der neueren Philosophie" (2 vols., 1833-1837, 2nd ed. 1844), and "Abelard und Heloise" (1834, 3rd ed. 1877), he married in 1837 and lived a rural existence at Bruckberg near Nuremberg, supported by his wife's share in a small porcelain factory.

In two works of this period, "Pierre Bayle" (1838) and "Philosophie und Christentum" (1839), which deal largely with theology, he held that he had proven "that Christianity has in fact long vanished not only from the reason but from the life of mankind, that it is nothing more than a fixed idea."

"Das Wesen des Christentums (The Essence of Christianity)"

This attack is followed up in his most important work, "Das Wesen des Christentums" (1841), which was translated into English ("The Essence of Christianity", by George Eliot, 1853, 2nd ed. 1881), French, Spanish and Russian. Its aim may be described shortly as an effort to humanize theology. He lays it down that man, so far as he is rational, is to himself his own object of thought.

Religion is consciousness of the infinite. Religion therefore is "nothing else than the consciousness of the infinity of the consciousness; or, in the consciousness of the infinite, the conscious subject has for his object the infinity of his own nature."

Feuerbach's theme was a derivation of Hegel's speculative theology in which the Creation remains a part of the Creator, while the Creator remains greater than the Creation. When the student Feuerbach presented his own theory to professor Hegel, Hegel refused to reply positively to it.

In part I of his book Feuerbach developed what he calls the "true or anthropological essence of religion." Treating of God in his various aspects "as a being of the understanding," "as a moral being or law," "as love" and so on. Feuerbach talks of how man is equally a conscious being, more so than God because man has placed upon God the ability of understanding. Man contemplates many things and in doing so he becomes acquainted with himself. Feuerbach shows that in every aspect God corresponds to some feature or need of human nature. "If man is to find contentment in God," he claims, "he must find himself in God."

Thus God is nothing else than man: he is, so to speak, the outward projection of man's inward nature. This projection is dubbed as a chimaera by Feuerbach, that God and the idea of a higher being is dependent upon the aspect of benevolence. Feuerbach states that, “a God who is not benevolent, not just, not wise, is no God,” and continues to say that qualities are not suddenly denoted as divine because of their godly association. The qualities themselves are divine therefore making God divine, indicating that man is capable of understanding and applying meanings of divinity to religion and not that religion makes a man divine.

The force of this attraction to religion though, giving divinity to a figure like God, is explained by Feuerbach as God is a being that acts throughout man in all forms. God, “is the principle of [man's] salvation, of [man's] good dispositions and actions, consequently [man's] own good principle and nature.” It appeals to man to give qualities to the idol of their religion because without these qualities a figure such as God would become merely an object, its importance would become obsolete, there would no longer be a feeling of an existence for God. Therefore, Feuerbach says, when man removes all qualities from God, “God is no longer anything more to him than a negative being.” Additionally, because man is imaginative, God is given traits and there holds the appeal. God is a part of man through the invention of a God. Equally though, man is repulsed by God because, “God alone is the being who acts of himself.”

In part 2 he discusses the "false or theological essence of religion," i.e. the view which regards God as having a separate existence over against man. Hence arise various mistaken beliefs, such as the belief in revelation which he believes not only injures the moral sense, but also "poisons, nay destroys, the divinest feeling in man, the sense of truth," and the belief in sacraments such as the Lord's Supper, which is to him a piece of religious materialism of which "the necessary consequences are superstition and immorality."

Part 2 comes to a crux though by seemingly retracting previous statements. Feuerbach claims that Gods only action is, “the moral and eternal salvation of man: thus man has in fact no other aim than himself,” because man's actions are placed upon God. Feuerbach also contradicts himself by claiming that man gives up his personality and places it upon God who in turn is a selfish being. This selfishness turns onto man and projects man to be wicked and corrupt, that they are, “incapable of good,” and it is only God that is good, “the Good Being.” In this way Feuerbach detracts from many of his earlier assertions while showing the alienation that takes place in man by worshipping God. Feuerbach affirms that goodness is, “personified as God,” turning God into an object because if God was anything but an object nothing would need to be personified on him. The aspect of objects having previously been discussed; in that man contemplates objects and that objects themselves give conception of what externalizes man. Therefore if God is good so then should be man because God is merely an externalization of man because God is an object. However religion would show that man is inherently corrupt. Feuerbach tries to lessen his inconsistency by asking if it was possible if, “I could perceive the beauty of a fine picture if my mind were aesthetically an absolute piece of perversion?” Through Feuerbach’s reasoning it would not be possible but it is possible and he later states that man is capable of finding beauty.

A caustic criticism of Feuerbach was delivered in 1844 by Max Stirner. In his book "Der Einzige und sein Eigentum" (The Ego and His Own) he attacked Feuerbach as inconsistent in his atheism. The pertinent portions of the books, Feuerbach's reply, and Stirner's counter-reply form an instructive polemics. (see External Links)

After "1848"

During the troubles of 1848-1849 Feuerbach's attack upon orthodoxy made him something of a hero with the revolutionary party; but he never threw himself into the political movement, and indeed had not the qualities of a popular leader. During the period of the Frankfurt Congress he had given public lectures on religion at Heidelberg. When the diet closed he withdrew to Bruckberg and occupied himself partly with scientific study, partly with the composition of his "Theogonie" (1857).

In 1860 he was compelled by the failure of the porcelain factory to leave Bruckberg, and he would have suffered the extremity of want but for the assistance of friends supplemented by a public subscription. His last book, "Gottheit, Freiheit und Unsterblichkeit", appeared in 1866 (2nd ed., 1890). After a long period of decline, he died on September 13, 1872. He is buried in the same cemetery in Nuremberg ("Johannis-Friedhof") as the artist Albrecht Dürer.


Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were strongly influenced by Feuerbach's atheism, though they criticised him for his inconsistent espousal of materialism. [ [ Feuerbach, Ludwig] at Glossary. Accessed October 2007.]


*"De ratione una, universali, infinita" (1828). [ Ghent] .
*"Gedanken über Tod und Unsterblichkeit" (1830).
*"Geschichte der Neuern Philosophie; von Bacon von Verulam bis Benedict Spinoza" (1833). [ University of Michigan] .
*"Abälard Und Heloise, Oder Der Schriftsteller Und Der Mensch" (1834).
*"Kritik des Anti-hegels" (1835). 2nd edition, 1844. [ University of Michigan] ; [ University of Wisconsin] .
*"Geschichte der Neuern Philosophie; Darstellung, Entwicklung und Kritik der Leibnitz'schen Philosophie" (1837). [ University of Wisconsin] .
*"Pierre Bayle" (1838). [ University of California] .
*"Über Philosophie und Christenthum" (1839).
*"Das Wesen des Christenthums" (1841). 2nd edition, 1848. [ NYPL] .
**(English) "The Essence of Christianity" (1854). Tr. Marian Evans. [ St. Mary's] . 2nd edition, 1881. [ Oxford] .
*"Grundsätze der Philosophie der Zukunft" (1843). [ Gallica] .
*"Vorläufige Thesen Zur Reform Der Philosophie" (1843).
*"Das Wesen des Glaubens im Sinne Luther's" (1844). [ Harvard] .
*"Das Wesen der Religion" (1846). 2nd edition, 1849. [ Stanford] .
*"Erläuterungen Und Ergänzungen Zum Wesen Des Christenthums" (1846).
*"Ludwig Feuerbach's sämmtliche Werke" (1846-1866).
**Volume 1, 1846. [ Gallica] ; [ NYPL] .
**Volume 2, 1846. [ Gallica] .
**Volume 3, 1847. [ Gallica] ; [ NYPL] . 1876, [ Oxford] .
**Volume 4, 1847. [ Gallica] ; [,M1 Oxford] .
**Volume 5, 1848. [ Gallica] ; [ NYPL] .
**Volume 6, 1848. [ Gallica] ; [ NYPL] .
**Volume 7, 1849. [ Gallica] ; [ Oxford] .
**Volume 8, 1851. [ Gallica] ; [ NYPL] .
**Volume 9, 1857. [ Gallica] ; [ NYPL] .
**Volume 10, 1866. [ Gallica] ; [ NYPL] .
*"Ludwig Feuerbach in seinem Briefwechsel und Nachlass" (1874). 2 volumes. [ Oxford] . Vol. 1. [ NYPL] . Vol. 2. [ NYPL] .
*"Briefwechsel zwischen Ludwig Feuerbach und Christian Kapp" (1876). [ Harvard] ; [ Oxford] .


* See also Van A. Harvey, et al. "Feuerbach and the Interpretation of Religion" (Studies in Religion and Critical Thought), 1997.
* [ Marxism explained: materialism] John Minns at Socialist Alternative. looks at Feuerbach's influence on Marx and Engels. Accessed October 2007
* Ludwig Feuerbach, “The Essence of Christianity” in "Religion and Liberal Culture", ed. Keith Michael Baker, vol. 8 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, ed. John W. Boyer and Julius Kirshner (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 323-336.

External links

* [ Ludwig Feuerbach Internet Archive] at [ Marxists Internet Archive] .
* [ Ludwig Feuerbach: "The Essence Of Christianity" in Relation to (Max Stirner's) "The Ego And Its Own"]
* [ Max Stirner: "Stirner's Critics"] Reply to Feuerbach


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