Frederick I of Denmark

Frederick I of Denmark

Infobox Norwegian Royalty|monarch
name = Frederick I
title = King of Denmark and Norway, the Wends and the Goths, Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn and Dithmarschen, Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst [ [ Diplomatarium Norvegicum] ]

reign = 1523 - 10 April 1533
coronation = 7 August 1524
predecessor = Christian II
successor = Christian III
consort = Anna of Brandenburg
Sophie of Pomerania
issue = Elizabeth of Denmark
Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
royal house = House of Oldenburg
royal motto = "My hope is God alone"
father = Christian I
mother = Dorothea of Brandenburg
date of birth = birth date|1471|10|7|mf=y
place of birth = Haderslevhus
date of death = death date and age|1533|4|10|1471|10|7|mf=y
place of death = Gottorp castle
place of burial= Schleswig Cathedral|

Frederick I of Denmark and Norway (October 7 1471 – April 10 1533) was the son of the first Oldenburg King Christian I of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1426–1481) and of Dorothea of Brandenburg (1430–1495). The name is also spelled "Friedrich" in German, "Frederik" in Danish, and "Fredrik" in Swedish and Norwegian.

The underage Frederick was elected co-Duke of Schleswig and Holstein in 1482, soon after the death of his father, the other co-duke being his ten years elder brother Johann (or Hans), the King. At Frederick's majority in 1490 both duchies were divided between the brothers.

In 1500 he'd convinced his brother and co-duke for a conquest of Dithmarschen, and a great army was called from not only the duchies, but with additions from all of the Kalmar Union for which his brother briefly was king. Also numerous German mercenaries took part. The expedition failed however miserably in the Battle of Hemmingstedt, where one third of all knights of Schleswig and Holstein lost their lives.

In 1523 his nephew Christian II, the King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, was forced by disloyal nobles to abdicate, and the duke took the throne as king Frederick I. A group of Jutish nobles had offered Frederick the throne as early as 1513, when his brother king Hans died, but he had declined, rightly believing that the majority of the Danish nobility would be loyal to prince Christian.

It is not certain that Frederick ever learned to speak Danish. After becoming king, he continued spending most of his time at the castle of Gottorp in Schleswig.

In 1524 and 1525 Frederick had to suppress revolts among the peasants in Jutland and Scania who demanded the retoration of Christian II. The high point of the rebellion came in 1525 when the governor (Danish:statholder) of Gotland invaded Blekinge in an attempt to restore Christian II to power. He raised 8000 men who besieged Helsingborg Castle. Frederick's general, Johan Rantzau, moved his army to Scania and defeated the peasants soundly in April and May of 1525. After the Battle at Lund, rebels fled into the cathedral and Rantzau's soldiers dragged 60 men from the church and butchered them on the spot. Approximately 3,000 rebels died before the uprising ended.Fact|date=August 2008

Frederick played a central role in the spread of Lutheran teaching throughout Denmark. In his coronation charter he was made the protector (Danish:værner) of the Catholic church in Denmark. In that role he asserted his right to select bishops for the Catholic dioceses in the country. Christian II had been intolerant of Protestant teaching, but Frederick took a more even handed approach. For example, he ordered that Lutherans and Catholics were to share the same churches. He encouraged publication of the first Danish language Bible. When Hans Tausen was threatened with arrest and trial for heresy, Frederick appointed him his personal chaplain to give him immunity in 1526. Starting in 1527 Frederick authorized the closure of Franciscan houses and monasteries in 28 Danish cities.Krønike om Gråbrødrenes Udjagelse] In some cases he offered small sums of money to the displaced monks. He used the popular anti-establishment feelings that ran against the Catholic hierarchy and nobility of Denmark to decrease the power of bishops and Catholic nobles. He was skillful enough to prevent all out warfare between Protestants and Catholics. In 1532 he succeeded in capturing Christian II who had tried to make a political come-back in Norway. Tensions between Catholics and Protestants rose to a fever pitch which resulted in the Counts' Feud (Danish: Grevens Fejde) upon Frederick's death.

As King of Norway, Frederick is most remarkable in never having visited the country. He was never crowned King of Norway, and therefore styled himself "King of Denmark, the Vends and the Goths, elected King of Norway".

Family and children

In 1502 he married Anna of Brandenburg (15 years old; the daughter of his mother's sister; 1487–1514). The couple had two children:

# Christian, the future duke and king (12 August 1503 – 1 January 1559)
# Dorothea (1 August 1504 – 11 April 1547), married 1 July 1526 to Duke Albert of Prussia.

Frederick's wife Anna died on May 5 1514, 26 years old.

Four years later, Frederick married Sophie of Pomerania (20 years old; 1498–1568), a daughter of Duke Bogislaw "the Great" of Pomerania. Sophie and Frederick had six children:

# Duke Hans the Elder of Schleswig-Holstein-Haderslev (28 June 1521 – 2 October 1580)
# Elizabeth (14 October 1524 – 15 October 1586), married:
## on 26 August 1543 to Duke Magnus III of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
## on 14 February 1556 to Duke Ulrich III of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
# Duke Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp (25 January 1526 – 1 October 1586)
# Anna (1527 – 4 June 1535)
# Dorothea (1528 – 11 November 1575), married on 27 October 1573 to Duke Christof of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
# Bishop Friedrich of Hildesheim and Schleswig (13 April 1532 – 27 October 1556).

In 1525 his son, the future king Christian III, married Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg (14 years old; 1511–1571).

He died on April 10 1533 in Gottorp, at the age of 61 and was buried in Schleswig Cathedral.



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