Jerusalem during the Mamluk period

Jerusalem during the Mamluk period

Jerusalem was under the Mamluk rule from 1260 to 1516. This period coincides with the history of the city's years of Mamluk rule in Israel. Mamluk Jerusalem was a city strategically marginal, politically and economically, yet high religious importance, both for the Muslim Mamluk rule and for Jews and Christians.

Government in Jerusalem during the Mamluk period was in the hands of officials who were clerics and concentrate on building the Islamic religious buildings in the city. Administrative side of the city was neglected, and its population was largely poor, living in the shadow of magnificent palaces and buildings were used as central teaching of Islam. Jerusalem was an important center of pilgrimage for the three religions that existed in small communities of Christians and Jews, although suffering many restrictions, but received some protection rights. Many magnificent buildings on the Temple Mount in the Old City were built during the Mamluk period, the impact of Mamluk architecture evident in the city today. Architecture design information used by the Mamluk style architectural city in modern times to create a "mirror Jerusalem."



The Mamluks took over in practice on the land of Israel after their victory in Ain Jalut the Mongols. After the battle, took place on 3 September 1260, killing one officer senior Mamelukes, Baybars, Sultan Kotoaza became the Sultan himself. Baybars not paid particular attention to Jerusalem, but business in the early years of his rule defeat the Crusaders left Israel. He adopted a strategy of destruction of coastal cities in order to reduce the profitability Chibusne the Crusaders, who might return to Israel Israel's new crusade. Jerusalem remained an open city after the walls were demolished in 1219. Mamluks did not bother to rebuild the walls and added a marginal position in this period.

The only place in Jerusalem product that has been the fort (now called the Tower of David). This was done in 1310, fortress garrison was headed by Commissioner (naive). On the other hand, near the Temple Mount (the early period of white school in Al - Omar "and then close the gate attendant), was the governor's Strongholds religious affairs (Nat Algiers to - Aharmein - overseer of Ahaharmym or Commissioner of Endowments). Governmental powers were divided between the two. Commissioner was an army officer and commander of the garrison. He was responsible for maintaining law and order in the city, the collection of taxes and municipal services (water supply, sewers and collecting garbage), while the governor was in charge of religious affairs on the Temple Mount, all of the endowment (Waqf) of Jerusalem and the Tomb of the Patriarchs in Hebron. It was alleged senior military commander religious governor, but in fact the government had given much of Jerusalem in the hands of religious governor, because of the importance of religion in the city and location of the clerics in charge of the endowments saw the sole charge of them. Religious governor also formed an independent police force (see the history of the status of the Waqf in Jerusalem.)

Jerusalem land of Israel during the rule of the Mamelukes enjoyed relative peace. Exception of the Mongol invasion of Gizane in -1299, the first raids of Peter King of Cyprus from 1365 to -1369, the Tartar Timur's takeover of the land of Israel in -1401, and raids of Bedouin tribes, land wars did not know at this time. For the Mamluks was the land of Israel, especially the coastal plain, a place beyond the rule base in Egypt to the center in Damascus.

Mamluk rule in Israel ended in 1516 with the conquest of land by the Ottomans, after the defeat of the Mamluks in Marj Daabak. At the end of December 1516 Sultan Selim came first to Jerusalem without a fight, and residents welcomed him with open arms.

Overview political, administrative and economic

Jerusalem was one of the Mamluk Empire City negligible margins, no strategic importance and distant through the mail; However, increased awareness and determine the status of Islamic holy city, the third holiest site of Islam, after Mecca and - state [1]. Literature "In Praise of Jerusalem" reflects the role of Jerusalem Muslim consciousness of the period, as illustrate Justice Mojo City A - Dean: [2] Cquote2.svg praying in the Temple, all sins forgiven him. Next to the place of the Temple, praying to a rock on the right and left, praying the prayer request in the chain and gives charity, a little or a lot - his request answered. Allah removes his grief over him and he cleared his sins stark ... Lord of places - the Temple Mount, and Mr. rocks - rock the Temple Mount. Hour of Resurrection will not come until it led the Kaaba as a bride to the rock ... What better to live in Jerusalem ... Who lives there, as fighting a holy war for Allah. Cquote1.svg - Mojo City A - Dean, "History of Jerusalem and Hebron, 1495. Translation: Joseph Drury.

This concept of Jerusalem as holy but were strategically insignificant number of implications. Although Jerusalem was ruled as the Mamluk city, by a secular military governor (naive), but it was low-grade officer. Great man in Jerusalem throughout the period was "in charge of the endowments, a cleric, sometimes referred to in literature as the" overseer. " Most of the topics this time it literally interpreted in the narrow sense, that is sure construction for renovation of religious buildings around the Temple Mount, and cared for the welfare of clerics and students madressa. Not all involved in development - the city's religious and generally abandoned.

According to the Mamluk law could not leave a property descendants role, since the property is considered part of the job. Therefore, the only way of having a role in offspring care was a Mamluk by dedicating his property waqf (waqf, وقف) while the appointment of his son waqf property manager, so win reward him. Religion and religious buildings in Jerusalem have been established for many of these endowments. Central place development in terms of importance was the Temple Mount and its surroundings, where most buildings were devoted.

Waqf and religious institutions were exempt from paying taxes, especially tax burden carried by the Christian and Jewish communities. In this situation, where a minority of taxpayers bore the burden, the city treasury was depleted in the majority, did not allow maintenance and urban development. Not religious development projects, such as water supply during the Sultan Caitabi, was carried out, usually based on budgets from the central government in Cairo.

Jerusalem was considered a place of exile, punishment for officials who betrayed the city, a group of officers who were among the deposed Sultan, fallen officers, etc.. These people, known as the "metal" (Arabic: بطال), were often capable of making an impressive contribution to their talent that stood out more than a clerk appointed by the government. Due to lack of practical civil presence, give them a certain freedom to do so. The "Tal" punished and sought to atone for the deed. Among the most common types of atonement in Jerusalem was a holy place or building renovation, devoting an address expressing the hope to atone scratched building. The "Tal" arrived from all corners of the empire, and had different approaches cosmopolitan atmosphere contributed to the city, at least relative to field a Muslim city. Emirs (military leaders, rulers) we spent more and more of the sacred, well beyond the practical for such a poor city, while the mundane needs were neglected.

In decay, especially after 1454 (except a break in the reign of Caitabi between 1468 to -1496), increased conflicts between Commissioner of Endowments and the governor of the secular city, which abandoned the city altogether raids Bedouin tribes of neglect and paralysis municipal water supply systems, cleaning, etc. forth.

Throughout the period of Jerusalem remains a city of prose (without walls). Initially this was explained in fear of repeating the takeover Crusader fortification in capturing the city. This cessation was later secular rulers, lack of budget (mostly used for religious activities), and voluntary status of the city to the holy city without signs of an army.

Until 1376, Jerusalem was part of the County ("Maya") Gaza (and Syria). This year the city received as a result of internal politics Mamluk, the status of "Nieve" (SUB), an independent, subordinate directly to the Sultan. But practically nothing has changed, and the city is not promoted "Malik al - Amraa" (Prince officers), Nieve rank of governors of Damascus, Aleppo, Safed or Gaza.

Jerusalem was economically very poor city. She concentrated on the cotton industry Nahal Ayalon size, industry and livelihood of women spinning, shatter merchants. Another industry sector was services provided to pilgrims. Mamluk period increased flow of pilgrims (Arabic: Ziara, زيارة) - Christians, Muslims and Jews. They were concentrated in Jerusalem, and services rendered to them (hotels, camping, bathhouses, small trade, training in writing manuals, etc.) were an important component of the city's economy.

Another important characteristic of the period is that 250 years of Mamluk rule there was peace in Jerusalem. She was captured and destroyed, and was a continuation of the construction and rehabilitation.

The demographic composition

Concentrated in Jerusalem, said, fallen officers from all over the empire formed the secular elite in the city. Together with the city of Muslims migrated from Bukhara, Persia, India, Afghanistan, Kurdistan and Africa. Some refugees from Mongol armies Timor progress Lang, and some slaves freed from service. South - East Jerusalem Mughrabi neighborhood based, that is of North African origin, descendants of warriors Saladin's army - Dean left the city and established a family. Muslim clerics come from all over the Muslim world, including an important group of spectators, a monks - Muslim thinkers. North - east of the city began to settle in a group of gypsies.

Also a Christian minority in the city housed a small Jewish minority (see below dhimmis: Jews and Christians). Ramban -1267 testified in the presence of 2000 Muslims, 300 Christians and two families of Jewish brothers engaged in the art of dyeing wool. [3] More than two hundred years later, in 1481, told passengers paid from Walter: "There (in Jerusalem) ten thousand homeowners Ishmalym and Ran (250) Jewish owners." [4]

On the permanent population, control of Jerusalem pilgrims Christians, Jews and Muslims, numbers and sometimes doubled the permanent city population. Yes he was a garrison in Jerusalem, several dozen soldiers, used US-based policing missions was in the fort ("Tower of David"). These soldiers were responsible for the evening parade, which returned to prayer on the Temple Mount to the fort across the city, accompanied by drums and flutes.

Mamluk Jerusalem construction

One of the most important principles was Mamluk Mamluk sultan is only the first generation, ie, while a boy who was sold into slavery, educated, trained Vuslm, living in the barracks and was part of the army elite. Only those who were in this definition could take positions in government. These positions, which included holding the property, could not be inheritance. Son of monarchy could not be considered as a Mamluk Muslim by birth, and was therefore an official position carrying engine. The fact Mamluk can not leave the method that led to the Mameluke devotes his life waqf property (waqf) and the appointment of Ben - Family waqf property manager. By law came endowment fixed income manager of the waqf, and promised Mameluke his family's economic welfare. Many officers choose to build endowment Mamluk buildings - Religion in Jerusalem.

Mamluk construction was concentrated in three areas of the city:

   * Temple Mount and renovated existing buildings, the arches were built around the Dome of the Rock, known as "Judgement Day balances" built Stwim around, mainly near the Western Wall (turn the "internal"), the cubic structures (domes and religious events to mark the ancient prophets - Islamic), passive drinking and bathing facilities Evie A. Z., Thai prayer used mainly clerics Scopus solitude.
   * Adjacent to the Temple Mount walls they built bridges have been renovated street chain ("Wilson's Arch) and later the cotton market makers (see below). Street also renovated the street leading to the valley today's Lions Gate ("gate tribes") to the Valley Street. These streets were built around them the most magnificent structures - running over, Raabattim (Hosts Muslim pilgrims) poor pilgrims and soup kitchens. Gates also breached leading to the mountain - home comfort pilgrims priests.
   * For foreign traders built khan (Khan Al - Sultan, hostel traders) in the old city center, meeting the markets and not far from the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, and also restored the markets served Christian pilgrims.

The city's main building was a rapier - Dean Tanachiz A - Nasri. Tanachiz was governor of Damascus in the years 1312 to 1340, during the reign of Sultan Muhammad ibn - Kelaon, at the time the Mamluk Empire reached its peak. During these years changed Tanachiz the face of Jerusalem through great and important construction projects. The main one of which was the establishment of the cult market Nim. This complex, market covered a hundred yards in length, has led to the gate of the Temple Mount breached wall (Bab al - Aktaneen, باب القطانين) right in front of Dome of the Rock, and the main entrance and main mountain. Well established in both houses - Bath (Hammam Al - Ein bath A - Shifa) and Khan (now located in the territory of Jerusalem Institute of Al - Quds), so that the way to the front gate of the compound passed through the sacred secular commercial complex - a fact evidenced by the for his great strength of Tanachiz against the religious establishment. Some income and bath market financing of the establishment devoted to building the most magnificent Mamluk Jerusalem - ran over Tanachziah, known today as "smart." Ahtanachizia was built in 1329 and is the most glorious Jerusalem, except madressa Ashrafiia on the Temple Mount, built a hundred and fifty years later. Mojo City A - Dean called it "it is not perfect and madressa." Ahtanachizia served ever since as a focus of government. During the Mamluk court was in litigation between Muslims and non-Muslims. During the Ottoman Turks since the Supreme Court building. It was an official residence for entertaining distinguished guests, as well as the official residence of the Mufti of Jerusalem. Today is where the border police base.

Official and private financing for construction and financing of religious activity, obtained by way of paying rental properties and agricultural areas in the villages around Jerusalem. For example, Malha village lands were dedicated to funding ran over the stack.

Religious buildings

   * Running over - the main religious structure built in Jerusalem is madressa. Madressa usually built two floors, first floor in the form of a central courtyard or indoor central hall surrounded by four study halls (EO or players), second floor living quarters. Front entrance is decorated with magnificent, inlaid with a dedicatory inscription curly Koranic verses. First madressa probably is Madrasa al - Awahedia son Malik Alauahed Yosef Ben Daoud, head of the sultan Kelaon Endowments, Bab A - slaughtered (north of the Temple Mount, the Lion's Gate of the day) in the '90s of the 13th century. She also served as hostel, and in September 1299 was buried in Alaod. Of more than forty running over built, running over other known are:
         o Ahtanachizia (see above)
         o Ahatstamoria, which is an example of building a private dedication of a public official and was built by Atstamor A - liminality in -1357
         o Ashraf on the Temple Mount (built by Sultan Caitabi in -1482). Moog wrote on Algiers A - Dean: "People used to say in the past, the mosque of Jerusalem (Temple Mount) There are two gems, the Dome of the Al - Aqsa and the Dome of the Rock, I say: this madressa third was a good stone that is the beauty of a desert reshape appearance Wonderland "and even R. Ovadia Mbertnora wrote in -1488:" Now the king ruling, saying he did it (inside the temple complex) building dandy and precious stone which is not made in any kingdoms "[5]
   * H. v. Evie line A and Z. A - H clear she intended audience building contains guest rooms, a place of worship, a place of study and place of solitude, isolation Zawayat is the viewers. Mamluks greatly appreciated and respected the viewers, and viewers referred to Jerusalem as a holy place in particular. Over madressa, including Abtanachizia, enclosures were devoted viewers. Possible link between the Mamluks viewers is a prophecy given by a monk after viewers called Kurdistan fanatic Sheikh Khader R. Lbeiberas. For the fulfillment of prophecy given to him Baybars Zawiya Jerusalem Dedications economy [6].

The Mamluks built mosques rarely Jerusalem. Al Aqsa Mosque was used for the needs of the Friday prayer, other prayers mosque not need a dedicated Muslim. In addition, each madrasa was a room with Mahraab used in case of need for prayer. However, the Mamluks built turrets around the Temple Mount (the tribes gate tower, turret chain near the Chain Gate, Tower of E. Einm northern corner - west of the mountain tin steeple, Ria corner south - west) and turrets others to achieve control of the city landscape. For example, Omar mosque minaret minaret eighth Clear saucer, built adjacent to the Church in -1466 as part of struggle for control of the tomb, and several inches tall dome.

Buildings on the Temple Mount

Mamluk construction activity center was the Temple Mount. Mountain building was a governmental privilege, and almost no buildings were built at a private personal dedication (An exception is the judge of tin 's A - Dean, who dedicated his eighth clear tin-horn Ria south - west of the Temple Mount). Construction was concentrated in the north western mountain. The Temple Mount was surrounded by the north and west Vstowem luxurious, which also included visits Madras Hasrafiia Vhasa'radia. Mamluk rulers, they established the Makstim known as auricular Judgement Day ", which surround the elevated platform on which stands the Dome of the Rock. Tanachiz established the structure of purification known as Wes "Dome of the Rock and Al Aqsa Mosque. In the 14th century, the name of Sultan Caitabi, built a stand this summer, he Ginevra (Darshan position) outdoor passive named after him. [Edit] cultivated Cultivated Shubaki (anyway) Cultivated Khmer

She cultivated a significant structure of the tomb. This is a cubic structure, ribs 2-3 meters in length and must dome built on top of a drum. Jerusalem at least three well-cultivated reserved:

   * Cultivated Shubaki Snbeatah at -1289 in the cemetery anyway, which buried the governor Safed - Alaa A. - Dean Idordy to Achubachi, who asked to be buried in Jerusalem.
   * Cultivated arch, where three graves of Khmer family were killed in battles against the Crusaders in the years 1251-1266. Urbane and well-preserved and is in a public park between the street Isaiah Strauss.
   * Most Beautiful civilized Jerusalem is cultivated only in Anne O. H. beautifully decorated estate character, located on the chain not far from the Temple Mount. This is a very rare tomb located within the city limits, not only this, but placed on the main road to the most sacred place. This is the tomb of a rich woman from Uzbekistan, who made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem (possibly fleeing the army of Timur Lang) and died there. The location of the exception can be evidence of civilized lack of interest in central government's weakness, which allowed for money to build freely and without guidance as to the purpose of the ground. Cultured two windows decorated with Mamluk bars, topped with a delicate lace trim and beautiful, geometric shapes and rich in plant motifs.

Other buildings

Hostels - among the first structures built in Jerusalem by the Mamluks were hostels for pilgrims (see in chat). Has been initiated in 1266 the establishment of Sultan Baybars Muslim pilgrims hostel, to improve their status in the city compared to Christian pilgrims. Baybars Hospice building stood where now is Lions Gate. The lodge building has not survived, but the "solidarity" (actually cheetahs, the symbol of Baybars) side of the gate are probably the remains of a building lodge. Were also the late 13th century to Rabat - Mansour (initiated by Sultan Kelaon), Rabat Rabat Kurd Alaa A. - Dean. Later, in the 14th century, built Tanachiz the Rabat A. - Nes Aa (women's hostel), and the two freed slaves from Turkey to set up the Rabat - rosary on Bab sinner. Private hostels were built to host the pilgrims of origin close to the origin of the devoted.

H. anime - Tanachiz established khan Khan first in the city, the market Ahachtanym for Muslim merchants. In 1386 he established the Sultan spit Khan special foreign merchants, is Khan al - Sultan standing in the exact center of the Old City, close to markets. Khan was built in a courtyard surrounded by living rooms on two floors. Traders were allowed to make trade yard khan, and only her. Mojo City A - Dean says that income eighth annual Ann, of four hundred dinars (considerable amount) provides accommodation and services, was dedicated to the maintenance of Al - Aqsa.

Tu Neshu Palace Lady K - unusual structure in the center of today's Muslim Quarter (up H Street, Sweden). Tonsok lady was the mistress of a Mamluk amir named Motfr a - Din. She was in Jerusalem between the years 1391 to 1398 and built the magnificent palace, which also was buried with her death in -1398. The palace later served as the main office building of the Ottoman rule (Hess R E E).

Water supply

Passive Caitabi, background - the entrance gate Ahachtanym Madras Hasrafiia

Jerusalem's water supply has always been problematic. Mamluk period arranged first regular supply of water to the Temple Mount was Alaa A. - Dean, Commissioner of Endowments and his battalion of Baybars. Has been established in 1266 to Mount water transport system needs cleansing.

-1327 Restored Tanachiz in the lower aqueduct since the Romans used to convey water from springs to - mixing pools of Solomon. He set the pool of passive channels Sultan, her mother passed along the chain to transport water to the "Juice" (al - Achasse) purity building built on the Temple Mount. This water plant also supplied the necessary water baths Ahachtanym market.

March 1483 was the last renovation of an aqueduct in the Mamluk period. Sultan Caitabi huge amount allocated to rehabilitate an entire aqueduct pools. The end of the aqueduct, also passing on the chain, built with passive Caitabi ran over Hasrafiia. This is the most magnificent passive Jerusalem, a dome decorated with stone tracery. Fabry Felix traveler who visited Jerusalem in 1480 saw the workers Hotzvim mountain water canal route, and wrote that the act of the channel exceeds that of King Hezekiah: [7] Cquote2.svg ... we saw more than six hundred Sarcnim (infidels) are digging and work to bring new water to those living in Jerusalem ... Jerusalem, the Sultan tried to get their water (the pool), multiple spending, hard-working intelligent ploys many sophisticated naked .. . Moreover, he re-installs ancient canals many tanks for storing rainwater and does not deprive himself any measure of money and work to provide water to the holy city of Jerusalem. All surprised to know what occurs to him of the Sultan to Jerusalem, he spends so much money and does so much to give her water. Cquote1.svg - Felix's travel guide Fabry.


Postscript-viewer-Main Main article - Mamluk Architecture Decorations, a dedicatory inscription, Mamluk Vablk bars cultured Torkane H. Thun

Mamluk architecture includes a relatively small dictionary of very typical design items. However, various structures are similar to each other - using a variety of design items allowed in those achieving great wealth of form. Usually decorated with magnificent facade, especially the main entrance.

Dictionary of Mamluk design items including the following characteristics:

   * Entrance to the building is characterized by a high alcove above the entrance pointed, curved inward shell adorned with stalactites of stone called "decoration pendants" or "Moe S. K. Ren."
   * Both sides of the entrance were built of stone benches.
   * The building found a dedicatory inscription, in which Arabic letters are a decoration in itself, often incorporated in the flora decorations geometric decorations. Most will be combined at the dedication Karnak (رنك, family crest) of devotes.
   * A combination of stones of different colors called Ablk. Often used Abablk combines white and black stones or red. Haablk characterizes the Mamluk Jerusalem construction so characteristic of it was copied early 20th century by the architects sought to create a "look Yerushalmi" (eg the Church of Dormition building the central post office.)
   * Mamluk bars - metal bars arranged in a grid with connections marbles.

בני החסות: Jews and Christians

Jews and Christians in Mamluk control were considered as dhimmis (a Hel Khaled, from the, أهل الذمة). Mamluks very particular about saving the conditions of Omar defining the status of dhimmi, meaning bans such as the ban on the sale and purchase of wine, Prohibition on construction of new religious buildings (renovation of religious buildings Only special permission), billing ID sign bearing (blue headdress and yellow for Jews and Christians ), a skull and taxation. However, as part of the rulers Amaakpedtam on religion, prohibited harm sponsorship they received the protection of their bodies and worship, even if degraded no rights. Do not understand that there were no cases of harassment Jews and Christians from ordinary people. Government, in turn allowed for the protection establishment of religion, was weak for most of the period, leaving the audiences dhimmis Ahshuphm Lhalchi spirit of the crowd. During periods when there was a strong and stable regime, as during the sultans Muhammad - Kelaon, spit Okaitabi, personal security was more Jewish and Christian communities in Jerusalem, while the more meticulous poll tax.


Jewish population of Jerusalem during the Mamluk period ranges from two families immediately after the Mamluk conquest [8], and several hundred (about 200 families of Ashkenazic and Sephardic) during the period. Jews were concentrated in the south, First Mount Zion, and then in today's Jewish Quarter, around the "narrow" which is located in the synagogue ruin today. Jewish population growth resulted mainly from the individual. In addition to the permanent population of Jews in the community hosted a number of pilgrims who often double the size of the settlement. Head of the Jewish leadership was "Governor", the seat was in Cairo (up near the expulsion of Spain were descendants of Maimonides on a chair governorship). Jerusalem led the crowd officially Deputy Governor, and in fact the top of any community or public leaders were "old." Language Arabic was Jewish.


Mamluk period pilgrimage resumed (also called loan Muslims Ziara) of Jews to Jerusalem, after a very dwindled in the Crusader period. Jewish Pilgrim has a number of "stations" in Jerusalem, who were part of ritual mourning for the destruction and the hope for redemption. The pilgrimage was generally of individuals or small groups, from all of Israel. Fraction of pilgrims stayed in Jerusalem, sometimes accompanying the important died and was buried, and sometimes for reasons of persecution (as the Ramban and R 'below). There are now documenting sources by going to pilgrimage ("tourists") Jews and Christians alike, including fees sent by immigrants to their communities and their relatives.

Pilgrimage ritual stations during this period included the Western Wall, Mount of Olives and Mount Zion.

Western Wall - in 1266 issued an order prohibiting Baybars dhimmi Temple Mount. Until then, Jews used to go and perform rituals of mourning at the edge of the Temple Mount. Since she began to build a prayer at the Wailing Wall, his various websites that changed the place several times. Mamluks cleaned the areas adjacent to the wall all along the valley from waste structures - temporary, allowing access to the Wall itself. However, construction of bridges, buildings and streets in this area periodically blocked prayer site and urged the Jews to another area of the wall. Brief mourning ceremony, which took place perhaps since the catastrophe, described at the time followed a Wed CA: "(views) of Jerusalem in ruins says (Isaiah brace) Zion Jerusalem desolate desert was tearing (rupture of mourning Ababgiu). (Sees) Temple destruction says (Isaiah chock) the holy glory of our ancestors who Halloch fire was burning was destroyed and Mahmadino tears: tears of the Jerusalem Temple and adds ... Since coming to (the mountain) are hilarious. rips on its own temple and Jerusalem itself. " Ramban also added reading Psalms Hymn A"te [9]. "Graffiti" the pilgrims of the tomb monument Zakaria

Mount of Olives - Mount of Olives was holiness holy stone as attributed to her attention "(" Mctaba ") which are supposedly Divine feet. The stone was consecrated by the Christians as well as a place from which Jesus rose into the sky. The pilgrimage rituals in this area is usually eighth General Assembly, and included surrounding the "chair" seven times, reading the poetic Hosanna special poems called "Mentionitis Mount of Olives." As the 14th century the stone was called "burning cow place" or "altar made Ezra" (hint to the altar where a red heifer burned Ezra, a year, a cow mask C E). In 1480 the Church was renovated into a mosque and Muslim immigration, and subsequently transferred the focus of Jewish pilgrimage to the foot of the Mount of Olives, the Valley of Jehoshaphat tomb of Zechariah. Even when the public service has changed, Shemini Atzeret and Tisha B'Av, and the emphasis which has the customs of mourning over the destruction of the house. Mamluk period that began to develop in a Jewish cemetery in the hope that in due course the messiah of Resurrection will be buried there first be saved. Of primary deceased were buried in the cemetery pilgrims, including the Ramban, Rabbi Ovadia Mbertnora, Rabbi Judah the Pious, and more.

From the mid 14th century there is evidence that another prayer to the messiah, at the individual level, opposite the Gate of Mercy, not related to the date of the general pilgrimage.

Jerusalem Ramban

In addition to pilgrimage to Jerusalem was also her goal settled it. The upper first Mountain Moses ben Nachman J. Ronda. Visit the city again in 1267 and founded the Jewish community there. He arrived in Jerusalem at age 72. His arrival he found that only two families and siblings who were involved in the work of painting. The few Jews who settled in villages around the city, would gather on Saturdays and holidays at the brothers to pray in public.

Ramban planned the revival of Jerusalem before he arrived, the grim situation awareness in Israel. Shortly before he left, he gave a sermon on the sanctity of the land and the importance of charity. Perhaps he meant to make his community efforts to support the establishment of religious institutions in Israel [10]

The situation in Jerusalem, he wrote to his son: "What on earth will tell you that great big desolation desolation, short, all the more sacred sword author author, [11] ...

He began to rebuild the community. First synagogue built in the country, Mount Zion, he returned the Torah scrolls from Nablus [12] and established a yeshiva in the city of her students came from neighboring countries.

He mentions the remains of a synagogue in fees sent. So he wrote: "we found a sword that pages built a beautiful dome." Luntz wrote in the late 19th century "... and to this day regarded as the pillars dome Ramban mentions in his letter. [13] but the synagogue moved to its new in the old city only in 1270, after the death of Maimonides.

Other settlements

The 14th century Rabbi Isaac wrote a French [14] who settled in the country "ahead of the kingdom of Ishmael." He calls for Jews to immigrate to Israel and leave "the country people, the land of drought the land shadow of death and come to Jerusalem holy ground of life ... and now to Atataclev and Atatarshlv return of Israel, Floor Lmanuhutiach root Jacob flood ... bloom came lost in France and Germany rejected in Jerusalem to worship the holy mountain ". The number of Jews in the city grows, more synagogues were built and settled in particular on [15], the beginning of the quarter.

Officials continued to rise commandment were the sanctity of the land to be built there. Mystical elements were added to them: by the end of the calculation of obscure verses in Spanish scholars Daniel came to the conclusion that the Messiah will come in -1358. Major reason that pushed Jews to leave Europe and go was the Black Death, plague raged through the continent and dragged her and her riots against anti-Semitism (decrees Akne"a for example).

Ashaturi Flowers (1280-1355) arrived in Jerusalem, by calculating an end, and in one year (between 1313-1317). He was expelled from France. He wrote his book Kaftor to prepare the observatory to thousands of immigrants in the country. The book contains commandments litigation pending in the country, a description country, its people, plants, borders and coins. He commended the Secretary of the Jerusalem community, noting that many came to her surroundings. Head of the community was Rabbi Baruch and with other rabbis. However, the introduction to the book "button and open" states: he "decided to leave Jerusalem a year ago, full of sitting in it, hold on to one of the small towns, for May, far from noise Campus, and will be able to engage in the Torah as he liked, not the city chooses T. v. the KGB ( emphasis in original) and pleasant "Beit Shean" a seat in which the tenth small community of our brothers; so that he could sit still and pursue the investigation of Ara"ak compose a special connection with investigations as results Bridal his entire life. "[16]. Rabbi Find a place convenient to write the book, until it left the rest of his life.

In 1333 he moved to Jerusalem Rabbi Isaac ben R. Joseph Helou from Barid organization, Spain. He sent a letter to his father in praise of the city.

The Ashkenazi Jews headed by Rabbi Yitzhak Halevi Mbeilstein, head of the Warsaw audience and with a group of students (increased by -1350). Acquired approximately 1400 Ashkenazi (funds remaining communities abroad) to the "narrow" (where it currently resides synagogue ruin) and established a synagogue, yeshiva and homes. It was the Jewish Center Mount Zion to the area of today's Jewish Quarter.

Late 14th century Mamluk Empire came to power the first Mamluk sultan lineage screw Jit spit (1390). He sent a new governor of Jerusalem, founded by new arrangements very easy tax on Christians and Jews. Son Faraj was hostile to Christians to remain in town only two French bishops few Armenians. However, he tended to favor the Jews. Rabbi Elijah of Ferrara visit the city in 1437 and he wrote for - his family in Italy: "Jews living peacefully in Jerusalem, are all branches of the workshop, including the quarrying of stones. Women are engaged in weaving. The material and moral good condition." Heads of the audience asked him to teach them and he says that he taught three times a day with additions SWITCH Talmud Maimonides. For "pour a decent wage" [17].

Ghosn Poloner, travels to England to visit the Land of Israel in 1421 wrote that about 76 steps Gate Street of the Jews "(is the Zion Gate) is" Street synagogue of the Jews "- Jews present intention street continuing south to north toward markets. This first source that describes the new Jewish neighborhood in the Old City.

There is evidence of Sheikh Muhammad Ibn Aba [18] that in 1474 the synagogue was destroyed in the city, claiming that he "new", "before returning to the synagogue and took them out of town" - that is returned to the synagogue on the Mount - Zion. He restored order of Sultan Caitabi "against (opinion of) all his ministers and his servants and to his country" (the words of its employees Mbertnora). Sultan also ordered to punish the rioters. In -1488 he moved to Jerusalem and settled in R. Ovadia Mbertnora, and this year increased the rise of Spanish and peaked after 1492 - the expulsion from Spain. Late 15th century were in Jerusalem more than 200 Jewish families, who lived near to "our fellow" Today's Jewish Quarter.


Christians divided Christian population of - the country, who have no communities - whether in Europe, European Christians. The first group included communities such as Armenians, Maronites, Copts, Assyrians (Syrians), the Jacobites, the Ethiopians. The second group, "European Christians, included the" Latino "(followers of the Catholic Church), the Georgian and Greek Orthodox. Every community which lived around the core structure of a major religion (church or monastery) in the old city (except the Georgian headquarters was the convent of the Cross), claiming ownership of part of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Like Jews and Muslims, even Christians and pilgrims hosted a community was a guest house for pilgrims.

Holy place common to all the testimony was the Holy Sepulcher. This church was also the focus of Christian pilgrimage, pilgrimage reached its peak in the 15th century. Control of the church was the Muslim Mameluke rule, which stated the arrangements for opening and closing of the place and collected tax (different value to each community) on the entrance to the church. Various ethnic groups fought each other on the basis of different areas of the church, often used to bribe the authorities to allocate them rights and support them. For rulers, who took bribes from all sides, the church was abundant source of income.

Christian attitude

Christians divided into two treatment periods. In the first period, until the mid 14th century, Mamluk main concern was for another Crusade to come from Europe, so they are suppressed with a heavy hand the European Christians. Communities were small, they were targets of attacks. For example in 1272 the monk broke Sufi fanatic Khader R, a favorite of Baybars, the Monastery of the Cross, drove out the Georgians became damp place Clear (Sufi monastery). Only in the 14th century returned to Georgia. However, Christian denominations "land girls" were at that time a certain autonomy and rights, for example Holy Sepulcher.

The second period began in the forties of the 14th century, when Sultan Mohammed said - Kelaon Order Franciscan (Catholic) charter permitting them to buy land on Mount Zion, to establish a monastery and drink wine. Mamluks pledged to protect Christian pilgrims convoys, not charge them an arbitrary number, and dismissed the tax Franciscans Holy Sepulcher. No doubt a charter (which was temporary and a month of each generation with Sultan Sultan) bought a lot of money paid to the Mamelukes by the Pope. From then increased their share of Catholics, with the assistance of capital managed to establish a growing foothold at the expense of other Christian denominations. Among the reasons for change include eliminating the risk of the Crusader, and the rise of power of Venice and Florence trading powers, normal economic relations with them have become essential. Franciscans in Jerusalem were also members of one sponsor Europe's strongest dynasties period, Burgundy. Mid-15th century the Franciscans were expelled from Mount Zion and delivered them to the area they have to date, in the north - west of the Old City.

Conflict on Mount Zion

Mount Zion is a place sacred to both Jews, that indicate where the tomb of David, and Christians, who believe there was the Last Supper. There was a Crusader building which also positioned the Franciscans. Jews held in prayers and ceremonies, and he was one of the stations pilgrimage. The second half of the 14th century until 1427 there were conflicts between Jews and Christians for holding prayers rights in and visit. In -1427 Governor Jews turned to the Sultan (C Akmak) and asked to reach a compromise. Sultan's reply, according to Felix Fabry was: "So we think the David saint, just like Christians and Jews, we believe in the Bible just like them. On - Yes No Jews and Christians will have this place, but we take it ourselves." [19] According to another analysis [20] During this period, the Mamluks would harm Christians a political issue, as part of their competition with the Ottoman Empire, and they punished the Christians following the "illegal construction." According to this analysis, try to pick on the Jews is just Christian propaganda.

Indeed, the monks were expelled from and -1452 place has become a mosque. Thus began a series of international conflicts, including Christian groups tried in the Mamluk regime to take over the place. Even rich Jews tried to bribe the Sultan not to give a hand Ldhiaktam of Jews. On the passenger Guillaume -1462 Oliver reported: "They (Muslims) to prevent the Christians from entering there (David's Tomb structure) under the death penalty." For short periods back to Franciscan control, but eventually the Franciscans were expelled and some were imprisoned final.

Implications for the Jewish people were difficult, because the Christian anger was directed at Jews. In 1428 Venice took Pope Martin V, an order forbidding the Rabbi - captains Jews and Christians to lead their ships making their way to Israel - Israel. It also imposed heavy taxes on the Jews of Italy as "compensation" Franciscans. These decrees, known as "sea decree, canceled only in the eighties of the 15th century. In 1488 employees Mbertnora reporting: Cquote2.svg old cemeteries were also kings under the reach of the Franciscans ... comes a rich Jew, Ashkenazi, who wanted to buy them from the Mamluk sultan ... Onatkotadt with Ahkomarym ... [Due to this conflict] took them [the graves] immediately Ahkomarym are now under the hand of the Ishmaelites. Learning of the Jews following Buweinicaah red (Europe) led to a cemetery of kings under the hand of the red [Christians], then cut render sub - out and came to the Jews in Jerusalem through the country, and now thank God lives, void decree. Cquote1.svg - Employees Mbertnora. Within Jerusalem city and p. 140

Jerusalem Travel Literature

Literature developed during the Mamluk period was intended for pilgrims, and in many cases written by pilgrims to describe their experiences in the Holy Land and Jerusalem in particular. Islamic literature is called "In Praise of Jerusalem" or "alarm Lziara, and Ugmaautia outstanding book by Jamal A. - Dean Almkedsi (died 1364)," evokes the desire to visit Ablkodas or - if [21] "or Moog's book 'City of a - Dean, "History of Jerusalem and Hebron" (1495). Jewish literature exists side, who represents the trustee is "Kaftor" Lashaturi Flowers Wagrotim of employees Mbertnora student communities, as well as literature - such as the Christian Journey Travel Felix Fabry (1480) or "Journey to Israel the Holy Land" by Bernard von Briidnbeaach (1486).

The literature 'new' angle of vision of this distinguished practical - not only stories of saints and depictions of holy places, but the information purports to be reliable and accurate than in accommodation, liturgy Vmuadiam, markets and their prices, warning against the cunning of traders Ourmaweutiam of guides - the Secretary information This modern travel guides found.

For example: Cquote2.svg Fair every day there (in Jerusalem) five Sritaut (= blocks) inside large, not a hot sun because Ichm built up a large dome, and tunnels a lot in her hand will light them ... and shops either side in a row decorated welcomes the Bell will be missed by all them. It's hard to pass Abshrteia each with the crowd there. Cquote1.svg - Letter of Rabbi Yitzhak Bar-Meir Latif (connected between the years 1485 to 1480) (of Yaari, fees, p. 94)

Or Cquote2.svg "When you go to the market Itpasach near Weobillach a donkey to donkey. No one happened two or three materials will hold one pilgrim and every one Ymsachnu different direction." Cquote1.svg - Travel Felix Fabry (1480) 70-10

With the invention of printing guides tourists and pilgrims were these first texts printed (perhaps the first of which is the book by the German priest Bernard von Beridnbeach "Journey to Israel the Holy Land" in 1486).

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