- House of Windsor
surname = House of Windsor
estate = United Kingdom, other Commonwealth realms
coat of arms =
title = Other Commonwealth realms
Antigua and Barbuda
Papua New Guinea
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
parent house = House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, a branch of the
House of Wettin
titles = "Various"
founder = George V
current head = Elizabeth II
founding year = 1917
nationality = The House of Windsor is the current
Royal Houseof the United Kingdomand each of the other Commonwealth realms. The older part is a branch of the Saxe-Coburg and Gothaline of the House of Wettin, while the newer part is a branch of the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburgline of the House of Oldenburg.
Descendants of Victoria
By virtue of Queen Victoria's marriage to Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gothandash son of Duke Ernst I of the small German duchy of
Saxe-Coburg and Gothandash her descendants were members of the ducal family of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, with the house name of Wettin. Victoria's son, Edward VII, and, in turn, his son, George V, reigned as members of this house.
However, high anti-German sentiment amongst the people of the empire during
World War Iprompted the King and his family to abandon all titles held under the German Crown, and to change German sounding titles and house names to English sounding versions. Hence, on 17 July 1917, a Royal Proclamation issued by George V provided that all agnaticdescendants of Victoria would be members of the "House of Windsor", with the personal surname "Windsor". The name had a long association with royalty, through the town of Windsor and Windsor Castle, a link reflected in the Round Tower of Windsor Castle being the basis of the badge of the House of Windsor.
Upon hearing that his cousin had changed the name of the British royal house to Windsor,
German EmperorWilliam II remarked jokingly that he planned to see Shakespeare's play "The Merry Wives of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha".
Descendants of Elizabeth II
In her British Privy Council, on
9 April 1952, Queen Elizabeth II officially declared her "Will and Pleasure that I and My children shall be styled and known as the House and Family of Windsor, and that my descendants who marry and their descendants, shall bear the name of Windsor." [http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/prince_highness_docs.htm#1960 Royal Styles and Titles – 1960 Letters Patenet] ] This, however, contrasted with the usual practice that would see her children be of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, through their father, born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, in a line of the House of Oldenburg. On 8 February 1960, the Queen confirmed that she and her children would continue to be known as the House and Family of Windsor, as would any agnaticdescendants who enjoy the style of "His/Her Royal Highness", and the title of prince or princess. Still, Elizabeth also decreed that her agnatic descendants who do not have that style and title would bear the surname " Mountbatten-Windsor", Mountbatten being the surname adopted by Prince Philip before his marriage, which is itself an anglicisation of his mother's family name, Battenberg. Any future monarch can change the dynastic name through a similar royal proclamation.
At the creation of the House of Windsor, its head reigned over a unitary
British Empire. Following the end of the Second World War, however, geo-political shifts took place that saw the emergence of the Dominions as sovereign states, the first step being the issuance of the Balfour Declaration in 1926, followed by the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act the next year, and the Statute of Westminster in 1931. From then on, the House of Windsor became the royal house of multiple countries, a number that shifted over the decades as various Dominions and Crown colonies gained independence, and various of those moved to become monarchies under a different sovereign or a republic. Since 1949, the head of the House of Windsor is also Head of the Commonwealth of Nations, comprising most (but not all) parts of the former British Empireand some states that were never part of it.
In the chart below, the countries are differentiated between light green (realms of the House of Windsor as
Dominions), medium green (present realms of the House of Windsor), and dark green (former realms of the House of Windsor).
Patrilineal descent, descent from father to son, is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that the "patrilineally accurate" royal house of monarchs of the House of Windsor is the House of Wettin.
Descent before Conrad the Great is taken from [http://fabpedigree.com/s056/f354285.htm] and may be inaccurate.
House of Wettin
#Burkhard I, Duke of Thuringia, d. 870
Burchard, Duke of Thuringia, 836 - 908
#(possibly) Burkhard III of Grabfeldgau, 866 - 913
#Dedi I, Count of Hessegau, 896 - 957
#(probably) Dietrich I of Wettin, d. 976
#(possibly) Dedi II, Count of Hessegau, 946 - 1009
#Dietrich II of Wettin, 991 - 1034
#Thimo I of Wettin, d. 1099
#Thimo II the Brave, Count of Wettin, d. 1118
Conrad, Margrave of Meissen, 1098 - 1157
Otto II, Margrave of Meissen, 1125 - 1190
Dietrich I, Margrave of Meissen, 1162 - 1221
Henry III, Margrave of Meissen, c. 1215 - 1288
Albert II, Margrave of Meissen, 1240 - 1314
Frederick I, Margrave of Meissen, 1257 - 1323
Frederick II, Margrave of Meissen, 1310 - 1349
Frederick III, Landgrave of Thuringia, 1332 - 1381
Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, 1370 - 1428
Frederick II, Elector of Saxony, 1412 - 1464
Ernest, Elector of Saxony, 1441 - 1486
John, Elector of Saxony, 1468 - 1532
John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, 1503 - 1554
Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, 1530 - 1573
John II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, 1570 - 1605
Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha, 1601 - 1675
John Ernest IV, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, 1658 - 1729
Francis Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, 1697 - 1764
Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, 1724 - 1800
Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, 1750 - 1806
Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, 1784 - 1844
Albert, Prince Consort, 1819 - 1861
#Edward VII, 1841 - 1910
#George V, 1865 - 1936
#George VI, 1895 - 1952 and Edward VIII, 1894 - 1972
#Elizabeth II, born 1926 "(daughter of George VI)"
*Longford, Elizabeth Harman (Countess of Longford). "The Royal House of Windsor". Revised ed. Crown, 1984.
*Roberts, Andrew. "The House of Windsor". University of California Press, 2000.
British Royal Family
* Canadian Royal Family
Notes and references
* [http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page5657.asp Royal Family Name] from royal.gov.uk
* [http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page135.asp House of Windsor] from royal.gov.uk
* [http://www.fto24.com/members/Tree.aspx?pid=11921 Graphic family tree of the Windsors]
* [http://kindo.com/en/famous-people/british-royal-family-family-tree/british-royal-family.html Full family tree of the British Royal Family]
* [http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/greatbritain.html Royal Family of Great Britain] including the Houses of Hanover,
Saxe-Coburg and Gothaand Windsor.
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