Directly struck idiophones

Directly struck idiophones

Directly stuck idiophones is one of the categories of musical instruments found in the Hornbostel-Sachs system of musical instrument classification. The idiophones found in this category produce sound resulting from a direct action of the performer as opposed to the indirectly struck idiophones. The player strikes the instrument with a direct action, either by hand or by mechanical intermediate devices, beaters, keyboards, or by pulling ropes, etc. It is definitive that the player can apply clearly defined individual strokes and that the instrument itself is equipped for this kind of percussion.

There are two main categories of directly struck idiophones, concussion idiophones (111.1) and percussion idiophones (111.2).

Concussion idiophones or clappers (111.1)

Two or more complementary sonorous parts are struck against each other.

111.11 Concussion sticks or stick clappers.

111.12 Concussion plaques or plaque clappers.

111.13 Concussion troughs or trough clappers.

111.14 Concussion vessels or vessel clappers.

111.141 Castanets - Natural and hollowed-out vessel clappers

  • Castanets
  • Krap

111.142 Cymbals - Vessel clappers with manufactured rim.

Percussion idiophones (111.2)

The instrument is struck either with a non-sonorous object (hand, stick, striker) or against a non-sonorous object (human body, the ground).

111.21 Percussion sticks.

111.211 Individual percussion sticks.

111.212 Sets of percussion sticks in a range of different pitches combined into one instrument. - All xylophones, as long as their sounding components are not in two different planes.

111.22 Percussion plaques.

111.221 Individual percussion plaques.

111.222 Sets of percussion plaques - Examples are the Lithophone and also most Metallophones.

111.23 Percussion tubes.

111.231 Individual percussion tubes.

111.232 Sets of percussion tubes.

111.24 Percussion vessels.

111.241 Gongs - The vibration is strongest near the vertex.

111.241.1 Individual gongs.

111.241.2 Sets of gongs.

111.242 Bells - The vibration is weakest near the vertex.

111.242.1 Individual bells

111.242.11 Resting bells whose opening faces upward.

111.242.12 Hanging bells suspended from the apex.

111.242.121 Hanging bells without internal strikers.

111.242.122 Hanging bells with internal strikers.

111.242.2 Sets of bells or chimes.

111.242.11 Sets of resting bells whose opening faces upward.

111.242.12 Sets of hanging bells suspended from the apex.

111.242.121 Sets of hanging bells without internal strikers.

111.242.122 Sets of hanging bells with internal strikers.


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