- Bonnot Gang
The Bonnot Gang ("La Bande à Bonnot") was a French criminal
anarchistgroup that operated in Franceand Belgiumduring the Belle Époque, from 1911 to 1912. Comprised of individuals who identified with the emerging illegalist "milieu", the gang utilized cutting-edge technology (including automobilesand repeating rifles) not yet available to the French police.
Originally referred to by the press as simply "The Auto Bandits", the gang was dubbed "The Bonnot Gang" after
Jules Bonnotgave an interview at the office of Petit Parisien, a popular daily paper. Bonnot's perceived prominence within the group was later reinforced by his high-profile death during a shootoutwith French police in Nogent.
Their story was adapted in cinema in 1969 [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0064066/] . It also appeared in the popular 70s TV series "Les Brigades du Tigre" and its cinematographic adaptation made in 2005 with
Jacques Gamblinas Jules Bonnot.
The Bonnot Gang originally consisted of a group of French anarchists centered around the individualist magazine "
l'Anarchie". The group was founded by Octave Garnier, Raymond Callemin, and René Valet. It was Garnier's idea to use automobiles in the service of a daring criminal act. Jules Bonnot joined them in December 1911.
Principal gang members included:
Raymond Callemin("la Science");
Jules Bonnot("le Bourgeois"), a professional car thief;
René Valet, secretary of the Revolutionary Youth;
Anna Dondon, a convicted counterfeiter;
Octave Garnier("le Terrassier"), a draft dodger;
Marie Vuillemin("la Belge");
André Soudy("Pas de chance"), a young grocerwho suffered from tuberculosis;
Édouard Carouy("le Rouquin"), a professional burglar;
Jeanne Belardi, an Italian;
Jean De Boe, organizer of the Brussels Revolutionary Group;
Élie Monier, a draft dodger;
Eugène Dieudonné, an anti-militarist from Nancy.
Minor players included
David Belonie(a chemist), Marius Medge(an antimilitarist), Antoine Gauzy, Pierre Jourdan, Charles Reinart, Victor Kibalchich, Godorowski(a Russian refugee), Henriette Maîtrejean, and Berbe Leclech.
The gang's political and social perspective was heavily influenced by
Mikhail Bakuninand Pierre-Joseph Proudhonas well as Max Stirner, Ludwig Büchner, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Félix Le Dantec. Bonnot's ideas were more part with late anarchist Ravachol.
The first robbery by Bonnot's Gang was at the money transfer of
Société GénéraleBank in Parison December 21, 1911. They escaped with an automobile (a Delaunay-Belleville) they had stolen a week before. Robbersndash Bonnot, Octave Garnier, Eugène Dieudonné and Raymond Calleminndash got booty equal to 5,126 Francs, but the rest of it was composed of securities. The gang had the dubious honor of being the first to use an automobile to flee the scene of a crime, presaging by over twenty years the later methods of John Dillingerand Bonnie and Clyde.
December 28, 1911, the gang broke into a gun shop in the Paris center. A few days later, on the night of January 2, 1912, they entered the home of the wealthy M. Moreau and murdered both him and his maid. The booty take was equal to 30,000 Francs.
French Central Police
Sûreté Nationaledid its best to catch the gang. They were able to arrest one man based on their registry of anarchist organizations. The Gang fled temporarily to Belgium, where they sold the stolen automobile and tried to carjack another. In the process they shot a Belgian policeman.
The gang continued their automobile thefts and robberies, shooting two more policemen in the process. Automobiles were not yet common so the gang usually stole still expensive cars from garages, not from the street.
By March 1912, police had arrested many of the gang’s supporters and knew many of the members' faces and names. In March 1912, gang member and would-be leader Octave Garnier sent a mocking letter to the Sûreténdash with his fingerprints. In those days, the French police still did not yet use fingerprinting.
March 25, 1912, the gang stole a de Dion-Boutonautomobile in the Sénart Forestsouth of Parisby shooting the driver in the headFact|date=April 2007. They drove into Chantilly north of Paris where they robbed the local branch of Société Générale Bankndash shooting the Banks's three cashiers. They escaped in their stolen automobile as two policemen tried to catch them, one on horseback and the other on a bicycle.
Xavier Guichardtook the matter personally. Even politicians became concerned, increasing police funding by 800,000 Francs. Banks began to prepare for forthcoming robberies and many cashiers armed themselves. The Société Générale promised a reward of 100,000 Francs for information that would lead to arrests.
Pursuit and capture
On March 30, police arrested André Soudy at the
English Channelcoast, where he announced that he did not care whether he died of tuberculosisor by guillotine. Édouard Carouy was arrested April 3. Raymond Callemin was arrested April 7, and police had to prevent an angry mob from lynchinghim on the spot. Antoine Monnier was arrested in Paris on April 24. By the end of that month, police had arrested 28 gang members and supporters. Still, Bonnot, Octave Garnier and René Valet remained at large.
On April 24, three police officers surprised Bonnot in the apartment of a suspected fence. He shot at the officers, killing one and wounding another, and then fled over the rooftops. Part of the 100,000 Francs reward was later given to the widow of the killed police officer, Jouin.
On April 28, police had tracked Bonnot to a house in the Paris suburb of
Choisy le Roi. They besieged the place with 500 armed police officers, soldiers, firefighters, military engineers and private gun-owners. By noon, after a sporadic firing from both sides, Paris Police Chief Lépines sent three police officers to put a dynamite charge under the house. The explosion demolished the front of the building. Bonnot was hiding in the middle of a rolled mattress and tried to shoot back until Lépines shot him non-fatally in the head. Afterwards police again had to prevent the spectators from lynching Bonnot. They simply told the crowd that Bonnot was already dead and had been buried in a secret grave.
On the evening of May 14, Octave Garnier and Rene Valet were besieged in the Paris suburb of
Nogent sur Marneby a large force including 300 police officers and gendarmes and 800 soldiers. Sûreté Chief Xavier Guichard himself led the siege. The firing from both sides was intense, and at 2 AM, Guichard decided to blow the place up. Garnier died in the explosion, but Valet tried to keep firing despite his wounds.
The trial of the Gang's survivors began on
February 3, 1913. Viktor Serge was sentenced to five years for robbery. All the others were initially sentenced to death. The sentence of Eugène Dieudonné was commuted to life imprisonment. Sentences of Édouard Carouy and Marius Metge were commuted to life imprisonment at hard labor. Carouy later committed suicide. Metge was sent to a penal colony. Raymond Caillemin, Antoine Monnier and André Soudy refused to plead for clemency and they were executed by guillotine.
In the aftermath of the collapse of the Bonnot Gang, French authorities used the threat of anarchist violence as the pretext for a substantial expansion in law enforcement power. Hundreds of raids were carried out against known anarchists and sympathizers (similar in scale to the
Palmer Raidsin the United States). Although the actions of the gang were not widely supported, even within the anarchist "milieu", the mainstream press called for a general crackdown on left-wing revolutionary activity.
French anarchist communists attempted to distance themselves from
illegalismand anarchist individualismas a whole. In August 1913, the Fédération Communiste-Anarchistes(FCA) condemned individualismas " bourgeois" and more in keeping with capitalismthan communism. An article believed to have been written by Peter Kropotkin, in the British anarchist paper "Freedom", argued that "Simple-minded young comrades were often led away by the illegalists' apparent anarchist logic; outsiders simply felt disgusted with anarchist ideas and definitely stopped their ears to any propaganda."
Nevertheless, the Bonnot Gang found some sympathy from the French working-class. As many as one hundred thousand people visited
Nogent(the site of the shoot-out that ended the lives of Garnier and Valet) and merchants in Parissold souvenirs depicting the bandits.
The Bonnot Gang remains one of France's most well known anarchist groups.
* Cacucci, Pino. (2006) "Without a Glimmer of Remorse". ChristieBooks. ISBN 1-873976-28-3.
* Imrie, Doug. (1994) "The Illegalists". . [http://recollectionbooks.com/siml/library/illegalistsDougImrie.htm]
* Parry, Richard. (1987) "The Bonnot Gang". Rebel Press. ISBN 0-946061-04-1.
* [http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x12nan_histoires-de-marne-la-bande-a-bonno_news Episode of Val-de-Marne TV "Histories of the Marne" dedicated to the Bonnot Gang]
* [http://www.brightcove.com/title.jsp?title=240119280&channel=219646953 Documentary Choisy Le Roi - April 28 1912]
* [http://www.brightcove.com/title.jsp?title=263783088&channel=219646953 La Bande a Bonnot] (1969)
* [http://www.archive.org/details/bonnot_gang The Bonnot Gang: The Story of the French Illegalists] , by Richard Parry, hosted by the
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.