# Concrete number

Concrete number

A concrete number is a number associated with the things being counted, in contrast to an abstract number which is a number as a single entity. For example "five apples" and "half of a pie" are concrete numbers while "five" and "one half" are abstract numbers. In mathematics the term "number" is usually taken to mean an abstract number. A denominate number is a type of concrete number with a unit of measure attached with it. For example, 5 inches is a denominate number because it has the unit inches after it.

## History

Mathematicians in ancient Greece were primarily interested in abstract numbers while writers of instructional books for practical use where not concerned with such distinctions, so the terminology distinguishing the two types of number was slow to appear. In the 16th century textbooks began to make the distinction. This has appeared with increasing frequency until modern times.[1]

## Denominate numbers

Denominate numbers are further classified as either simple, meaning a single unit is given, or compound, meaning multiple units are given. For example 6 kg. is a simple denominant number while 324 yards 1 foot 8 inches is a compound denominant number. The process of converting a denominate numbers to an equivalent form that uses a different unit is called reduction. More specifically, reduction to a lower or higher unit of measurement is called reduction to lower or higher denominations. Reduction to a lower denomination is accomplished by multiplying by the number of lower units contained in each higher unit. In the case of a compound number the products are then added together. For example 1 hour 23 minutes 15 seconds is 1×3600+23×60+20=5000 seconds. Similarly, division is used to reduce to a higher denomination and remainders can be applied to the next highest unit to form compound numbers. Addition and subtraction of compound numbers can be performed by grouping the amounts associated with each unit and performing the necessary carry and borrow operations. Multiplication and division by a pure number is again similar.

## References

1. ^ Smith, D.E. (1953). History of Mathematics. Vol. II. Dover. pp. 11–12. ISBN 0-486-20430-8.  (for section)

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### Look at other dictionaries:

• Concrete number — Concrete Con crete (? or ?), a. [L. concretus, p. p. of concrescere to grow together; con + crescere to grow; cf. F. concret. See {Crescent}.] 1. United in growth; hence, formed by coalition of separate particles into one mass; united in a solid… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• concrete number — Arith. a number that relates to a particular object or thing. [1585 95] * * * concrete number, a number which is connected with something real. Example: 4 men + 5 women = 9 persons. The numbers by themselves are abstract numbers …   Useful english dictionary

• concrete number — number which relates to a particular object or thing (Mathematics) …   English contemporary dictionary

• concrete number — Arith. a number that relates to a particular object or thing. [1585 95] * * * …   Universalium

• concrete number — con′crete num′ber n. math. a number that relates to a particular object or thing • Etymology: 1585–95 …   From formal English to slang

• Concrete — Con crete (? or ?), a. [L. concretus, p. p. of concrescere to grow together; con + crescere to grow; cf. F. concret. See {Crescent}.] 1. United in growth; hence, formed by coalition of separate particles into one mass; united in a solid form.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• Concrete quantity — Concrete Con crete (? or ?), a. [L. concretus, p. p. of concrescere to grow together; con + crescere to grow; cf. F. concret. See {Crescent}.] 1. United in growth; hence, formed by coalition of separate particles into one mass; united in a solid… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• Concrete science — Concrete Con crete (? or ?), a. [L. concretus, p. p. of concrescere to grow together; con + crescere to grow; cf. F. concret. See {Crescent}.] 1. United in growth; hence, formed by coalition of separate particles into one mass; united in a solid… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• Concrete sound or movement of the voice — Concrete Con crete (? or ?), a. [L. concretus, p. p. of concrescere to grow together; con + crescere to grow; cf. F. concret. See {Crescent}.] 1. United in growth; hence, formed by coalition of separate particles into one mass; united in a solid… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• Number — For other uses, see Numbers (disambiguation). A number is a mathematical object used to count and measure. In mathematics, the definition of number has been extended over the years to include such numbers as zero, negative numbers, rational… …   Wikipedia