Agroscope

Agroscope

Agroscope is the Swiss Federal government agriculture, food and environmental research organization, gathering the three research stations of the Swiss Federal Office for Agriculture, which is under the Federal Department of Economic Affairs. The three research stations are:

  • Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil (ACW): ACW carries out research in the areas of arable farming and fodder production, fruit, vine, vegetable and ornamental plant growing as well as berries, medicinal and aromatic plants. It also undertakes tasks in relation to the implementation and monitoring of agricultural production equipment (e.g. spray equipment) and variety protection. ACW is located at Wädenswil and Changins, from which it takes its name.
  • Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux (ALP-Haras): ALP-Haras carries out research into farm animals and dairy farming. The topics dealt with range across the entire chain, starting with feedstuffs through animal production and processing to animal food products and its role in human nutrition.
  • Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon (ART): ART carries out research aimed at eco-friendly and competitive agriculture. Its special focus is a diverse rural area. The staff develop and evaluate sustainable production systems in plant production and animal husbandry using an integrated research approach.


Contents

Goals

Agroscope conducts agricultural research across the entire food chain - from plant production and animal husbandry both outdoors and indoors, through laboratory tests to food analysis. [1]

The research stations are geared towards the needs of their service recipients: persons who work in agriculture as well as consumers, the public and administration. Agroscope encourages a multifunctional and competitive Swiss agriculture. It focuses on economical, ecological and social issues. Agroscope orients itself towards future challenges, gives cross-disciplinary and innovative system approaches the appropriate significance and operates in an application-oriented manner. [2]


Areas of activity

Areas of Activity ACW

    • Area 1: Arable crops and pasture systems

ACW research focuses on the development of grazing systems and farming practices that enable competitive livestock production, thanks to high quality fodder produced in an efficient and economical way. The scientific activities are meant to promote an efficient and profitable production of high-quality plant products for both human consumption and feed purposes while preserving soil fertility and the environment.[3]

    • Area 2: Viticulture and oenology

Research in Viticulture and Oenology is orientated in three principal directions:

    • Orientation and adaptation the production to the requirements of the market
    • Quality of the products
    • Sustainability of the production

To these three directions must be added the legal requirements related to varietal lists, to the certification of vegetal material and to the analysis of wines for exportation.[4]

    • Area 3: Berries, medicinal plants and greenhouse crops

The influence of agronomic and post-harvest processes on gustatory quality and the content of bioactive ingredients in the products are analysed. Programs for domestication and breeding of alpine plants are conducted for aromatic and medicinal plants as well as for ornamental plants, with the aim of proposing new species of interest for agricultural production and Swiss industry.[5]

    • Area 4: Plant protection for arable crops, grapevines and horticulture

In order to protect cultivated plants from their numerous enemies, it is necessary to develop methods of prediction, prevention and diagnosis, as well as control strategies and methods. Whilst the latter must be effective and economical, they must also respect the environment and its biodiversity. In parallel, for many cultivated species, purification and multiplication projects - particularly using biotechnological tools - are necessary to ensure the production of certified plant material.[6]

    • Area 5: Plant protection and fruit and vegetable extension

Eco-friendly cultivation and sustainable plant protection are the prerequisite for marketable, high quality fruit and vegetables. Based on the latest technologies, ACW develops methods for the diagnostics, prognosis and monitoring of insects, nematodes, fungal and bacterial diseases. ACW tests varieties and develops cultivation and plant protection strategies that respect the economic needs of producers, the entitlements of consumers and protection of the environment.[7]

    • Area 6: Arable crop plant breeding and genetic resources

A wide varietal choice allows farmers to align their production to the specific requirements of their region, their production system and the market they target.[8]

    • Area 7: Plant Products, Quality, Safety and Nutrition

ACW aligns the research activities with the demands of consumers and stakeholders, supporting them with solid knowledge for a healthy, safe and attractive diet comprising fresh and processed plant products of Swiss origin.[9]


Areas of Activity ALP-Haras

    • Area 1: Milk and meat production

Swiss farmers are increasingly being forced to produce high quality food under economic pressure, but without losing sight of the principles of natural, animal-friendly farming. ALP research and advisory service is there to help farmers do just that.[10]

    • Area 2: Milk and meat processing

Swiss cheese must make its mark as a premium product in the top price bracket. ALP therefore supports cheese production by acquiring knowledge to extend its leadership in terms of quality with the development and production of cultures as well as with ideas for proving authenticity.[11]

    • Area 3: Safety and quality

ALP inspects and authorises feedstuffs for animals in order to safeguard against the presence of toxic or otherwise undesirable substances. Feed inspections also protect animal keepers against falsification and ensure that feedstuffs are beneficial to animals and the environment. ALP systematically supports quality and consulting programmes in the dairy produce sector and offers its expertise to cheese producers and cheese maturing businesses in order to ensure the early identification and correction of problems.[12]

    • Area 4: National Stud Farm SNS
  • Activity 1: Biodiversity and training: SNS promotes the Franches-Montagnes, the only Swiss breed of horse. It also promotes the training, advice and other services to horse keepers.[13]
  • Activity 2: Equine research and reproduction: By researching hereditary diseases, performance physiology and feedstuffs the National Stud makes a contribution to equine health and disease prevention.[14]


Areas of Activity ART

    • Area 1: Natural resources and agriculture

Soil, water, biodiversity and air: these are the natural resources on which agriculture is based. They provide our food as well as drinking water, renewable energy and help to recycle nutrients from organic waste. Careful use of these resources is becoming more and more important, as the needs of the world’s growing population are increasing at the same time as fossil energy, mineral phosphorus fertilisers, clean water and fertile soils are becoming scarce. By means of experimental studies and long-term monitoring, ART measures important parameters in the environment. ART uses long-standing data series to record changes, and develop models to answer current questions.[15]

    • Area 2: Grassland systems and arable farming systems

ART research focuses on the development of grazing systems and farming practices that enable competitive livestock production, thanks to high quality fodder produced in an efficient and economical way. The scientific activities are meant to promote an efficient and profitable production of high-quality plant products for both human consumption and feed purposes while preserving soil fertility and the environment.[16]

    • Area 3: Biodiversity and environmental management

ART is looking for ways in which agriculture can promote biodiversity through environmentally friendly farming and the creation of ecological compensation areas. ART is also searching for ways of using this diversity in natural pest control, and are pointing out the risks that could disrupt the balance between useful creatures and pests.[17]

    • Area 4: Agricultural economics and engineering

Agriculture costs money. Farmers must invest in machines, livestock and buildings if they want to be successful. Often, however, it is not entirely clear how much money should be put into which machines and buildings. Therein lies the danger, since the wrong decision can have decisive and fairly long-term economic consequences for the farm.[18]


Agroscope Research Programs

  • AgriMontana

Agroscope's research programme AgriMontana deals with the sustainable development of mountain areas and the contribution of agriculture to this development. The aim of this programme is to devise and implement development strategies for agriculture and for the sectors upstream and downstream of it in the mountain area. [19]

  • NutriScope

The „NutriScope" program aims at optimizing parameters determining quality, safety and health along the food chain, from „farm to fork", in order to offer consumers maximum value for money. Work will concentrate on the economically important foodstuffs manufactured from raw materials of Swiss agriculture.[20]

  • ProfiCrops

Agroscope's research programme AgriMontana deals with the sustainable development of mountain areas and the contribution of agriculture to this development. The aim of this programme is to devise and implement development strategies for agriculture and for the sectors upstream and downstream of it in the mountain area.[21]

History

History until 1850

The importance in many regions of the Swiss Plateau was dominated for centuries by the three-field technique. This three-span rotation was divided as follows:

    • 1st Year: Winter wheat
    • 2nd Year: Summer grain (usually oats or barley)
    • 3rd Year: fallow

In each field possessed the farmer his individual acre. It was not a working association of farmers, but of a village community. The three-field did not let an intensive livestock. The common grazing on the fallow, the unfertilized Allmend and the stubble fields, and the lack of winter feeding offered only a meager food. For centuries, forest trees were debranched for winter feed. Agriculture froze in the three-field.

For agriculture, the 18th Century, means the dawn of a new, better era. Young country gentlemen took the management of their estates into their own hands and sought to agriculture, especially livestock raising and promote. The chains of the three-field technique were broken. They began with the stall-feeding, careful storage of manure, and built on the former fields potatoes and clover. The common land was parceled out and divided among the peasants. A new goal came to the fore, namely, to keep enough cattle to supply their own country with enough manure. In the midst of these developments, the French Revolution broke out. The world was open for innovations.[22]


First stations for education an controlling (1850-1880)

During the second half of the 19th century, humans had to adapt to the requirements of an industrialized community. Completely new technologies changed their lives and natural sciences offered completely different explanations for life procedures and agricultural production than before.

In the 19th century Switzerland therefore starts to install local agricultural institutes. With the new Federal Constitution of 1848 the modern welfare state begins to develop. In the Fifties the first, however very modest agricultural subsidies were paid to farmers. [23]

Till the middle of the 19th century people had to cultivate their bread grain by themselves. For the authorities, the major task of agriculture was the self-sufficiency of states with grain. Only until 1860, larger quantities of grain were imported from the Danube countries and from overseas. [24]


The birth of the research stations (1874-1914)

The Federal Government's first step towards agricultural research stations was the development of ETH Zurich, where the first two federal agricultural experimental stations were established in 1878: the Swiss Federal Seed Control Station and the Swiss Federal Agricultural Chemistry Experimental Station. Both stations grew very quickly. The Seed Control Station in particular developed into a world-renowned institute. Its founder, Friedrich Gottlieb Stebler led it expertly and successfully for 42 years. The topics studied included fertilisers and feedstuffs, soils, milk, wines, farm fertilisers etc.. A focal point was the further development of analysis methods. [25] This provided the starting point for the subsequent founding of the Reckenholz location of the present-day Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station (ART). However, the second location, Tänikon TG, was only opened in 1970, at that time as a research station for rural economics and agricultural engineering. [26]

At the end of the 19th century, the vines of West Switzerland were devastated by disease. This marked the establishment of the Vaud Vine Research Station in 1886 and ultimately also the Swiss Federal Research Station in Changins, which resulted from the amalgamation of the Swiss Federal Research Station for Agricultural Chemistry (founded in 1886), the Swiss Federal Seed Control Laboratory (founded in 1898) and the Swiss Federal Vine Research Station (founded in 1915). The Experimental Station for Fruit Production, Viticulture and Horticulture in Wädenswil had already existed since 1890. The Federal Government took over this station in 1902. [27] These two locations, Changins and Wädenswil, merged more than a hundred years later to form the Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil Research Station (ACW).

At the end of the 19th century the Federal Government built a new experimental station, including a vegetation building and an experimental cheese dairy, in Liebefeld, Bern. The buildings became operational in 1901. Liebefeld thus became the location for the following three stations: the "Experimental Station for Agricultural Chemistry", the "Swiss Dairy Farming Experimental Station" and the estate farm for permits for the sale of agricultural supplies with head office. [28] This head office of the Swiss agricultural experimental and test stations resulted in the Farm Animal Research Station. It moved its location to Posieux FR in 1974. [29] The Liebefeld and Posieux locations merged exactly one hundred years after their foundation to form the Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux Research Station (ALP).

In 1874 the Federal Government decided to build the Federal Foal Centre in Thun for breeding Freiberger stallions. In 1927 ten mares were added, and the foal centre became the Swiss Federal Stud. Since 1998 it has been called the Swiss National Stud. Since 2009 it has belonged to the ALP-Haras unit, together with Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux (ALP). [30]

This laid the foundation for Agroscope's present three agricultural research stations.


First World War (1914–1918)

As on 1 August 1914 the First World War broke out, Switzerland was totally unprepared: inadequate food production in their own country and the supplies from the country interrupted. Switzerland imported at that time about 85% of the cereal demand.

These bottlenecks particularly in the food supply during the First World War broke out in agricultural research, big changes. The priorities of research, more and more placed on agriculture and issues of grassland and livestock took place in the background. [31]


Between the World Wars (1919–1938)

After the end of World War people wanted as soon as possible return to a free market. This had disastrous consequences for agriculture. During the First World War, the prices of agricultural commodities were increased significantly, later collapsed brutally.

The importance of cereal crops for food security had been detected and forget the bad experiences at the beginning of World War II. Thus, the Federal Council tried shortly after the war to domestic cereal production by an import monopoly, combined with the acquisition of the domestic crop at a guaranteed price to support and protect against the fluctuations of the global market.[32]

On the 1st of January 1920 the two research stations "Swiss seed Investigation and Research" and "Swiss agricultural chemistry research institution" were combined. As of this date was also the new name: Swiss Federal Agricultural Research Institute Zurich - Oerlikon (ELVA).[33]


Second World War (1939–1945)

In an effort to learn from past mistakes and, if possible not to repeat them, people responded pretty quickly, as the political events of the situation in Europe got worse more and more. In time the war preventions measures were initiated. At the beginning of World War I all wartime measures were taken from case to case out of nothing and had to be put out, one was prepared when the war began in 1939 in various relationships significantly better.[34]

With the outbreak of war, the Laboratory provided primarily in the service of the adaptation and reproduction of the agricultural production. End of September 1943, the federal government acquired the good Reckenholz on the northern border of Zurich-Affoltern.[35]


Post-war years and the impact of the growing battle (1946–1960)

Thanks to the American Marshall Plan enormous sums of money flowed into the western Europe. This allowed the so-called "post-war economic miracle." The two to three decades after the war are known as an increasing time of euphoria and increased modernization. Agriculture also was included in an unprecedented structural change, her face changed dramatically.

In 1947, the force during the war price controls lifted and the free competition replaced the official price control again.[36]


Time since 1960

The Farm Act of 1951 underlined the idea that you can avoid by a generous promotion of agriculture, the overproduction of meat and milk, but proved to be deceptive. The situation, particularly in the dairy industry, coined the debates and actions of the agricultural policy in those years. In the European Community (EC) was the overproduction a big problem.

During this period, they put the focus of research attention to the development of friendly production methods and improving the quality of the crop.[37]


New concepts in agricultural politics (since 1996)

The major problems with the current agricultural policy and the changing values of society in terms of environmental awareness and quality of life called urgently for new approaches in the agricultural policy. On January 1, 1999 the new farm bill with the main objectives "more market, more ecology” was put into force. It had become clear that the company long term was only an environmentally friendly, animal-friendly and tolerant of sustainability-oriented mode of production. The target was clear: a comprehensive, environmentally sound and resource efficient land management, which complies with the care and preservation of our cultural landscape.[38]

A milestone to this is the so-called Integrated Production (IP). On the basis of different research and development projects at the Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil Research Station ACW in the Seventies and Sixties the Integrated Plant Protection – and further on the Integrated Production for Switzerland – was introduced, taking into account integrated pest control. Today, IP in Switzerland equals very often the production after the so-called ÖLN (“ecological performance record”) or SUISSE GARANTIE.

Regarding to a constantly growing world population and a threatening climate change the agricultural research has big challenges to overcome. The Agroscope research for agriculture, nutrition and environment is therefore an investment into our future.

Famous People

Jacob Gujer (1716–1785)

A simple farmer who came as Kleinjogg from Kazereutihoff to great fame, and so was he probably the most famous Swiss farmer. Gujer alias "Chlyjogg" became famous by the Zurich city doctor Hans Caspar Hirzel, who published, in 1761, a small book called the "Economy of a peasant philosopher". Chlyjogg was born in 1716 in Wermatswil, where inherited a farm, that managed with great success by new methods devised by him. 1769 he took over the domain “Katzenrütti” near the Reckenholz yards. The farm consisted of approximately 68 acres and meadows . Chlyjogg continued testing the methods invented in Wermatswil. He tested the application of gypsum and began to stall-feeding, to get more manure. Many important personalities such as Goethe and Duke Karl August of Weimar, visited the Katzenrüttihof. Other famous contemporaries such as Rousseau and Pestalozzi have acknowledged the successful of his work.[39]


Friedrich Gottlieb Stebler (1842–1935)

  • Founder of the first Swiss seed and Laboratory Investigation

Friedrich Gottlieb Stebler was born on the 11. of August in Safnern, in the Bernese Seeland, as the son of a farmer. In 1870 he joined the agricultural school Rütti. In 1875 he graduated as Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Leipzig. Later he founded a private seed control station in the Mattenhof in Bern. In 1876, he moved to Zurich in order to habilitated in the agricultural department of the Polytechnic. Under Stebler leadership, the seed control station also developed for the international seed trade recognized as a leading institution. 1889 to 1916 he headed the editorial board of the Swiss agricultural newspaper "The Green". On June 3, 1903 he was made an honorary member of the Highland Agricultural Society of Scotland in Edinburgh.[40]


Ernst August Grete (1848–1919)

  • Member of the Board of Directors of the first Swiss agricultural chemistry research station

Ernst August Grete was born September 29, 1848 in Celle (Hannover). He devoted himself to the university in Göttingen to the study of classical philology and later moved into the educational seminar. After his philological studies, he joined the scientific side. In 1878 he was manager of the chemical test station at the agricultural department of the Federal Polytechnic in Zurich. There he worked for more than 40 years.[41]


Hermann Müller-Thurgau (1850 - 1927)

  • The first director of Wädenswil and father of the world's first scientifically-based new vine breed

Hermann Müller-Thurgau was born in Tägerwilen on Lake Constance. He studied natural sciences at ETH Zurich. In 1874 he was awarded a PhD in Würzburg, Germany, and later became director of the Institute for Plant Physiology at the Geisenheim Research Station, Germany. In 1890 he became the first director of Wädenswil, the present-day Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil Research Station (ACW), and was a pioneer in the field of vine cultivation. He is considered the father of the Müller-Thurgau vine, which was crossed in 1882 and is the world's first scientifically-based new vine breed. With its success it displaced the old varieties, such as Elbling and Räuschling, and up until today has remained the most successful specifically cultivated vine variety: More than 41,000 ha are cultivated worldwide, which corresponds to almost three times the total vine area of Switzerland. It is most widespread in Germany; in German-speaking Switzerland it is still the most important white wine variety today. For a long time this vine variety was thought to be a crossing between Riesling and Silvaner. In 1998 an Austrian research team discovered, on the basis of molecular-genetic tests, that the crossing partners were not Riesling x Silvaner, but Riesling x Madeleine Royal. How this «mix-up» could have occurred has never been discovered. However, this fact has given new impetus to the vine variety's second name, Müller-Thurgau.


Albert Volkart (1873–1951)

  • First Director of the Swiss agricultural experimental station Zurich-Oerlikon
  • The great pioneer of Swiss agriculture

Albert Volkart, was born in 1873 in Zurich. In 1891 he began his studies at the agricultural department of the Polytechnic in Zurich. After the final examination in 1894, he joined as an assistant to Friedrich Gottlieb Stebler in this institution, where he was later an assistant and management board, where he worked for 35 years. Volkart dealt extensively with issues of plant protection. In 1917, Volkart replaced the retired CEO of Friedrich Gottlieb Stebler seeds Investigation and Research, and three years later, he became head of the Swiss agricultural experimental station Zurich-Oerlikon. In 1925 he became professor of Agronomy at the ETH. [42]


Friedrich Traugott Wahlen (1899–1985)

  • Director of the Federal Agricultural Research Institute Zurich-Oerlikon

Friedrich Traugott Wahlen was born in 1899 in Gmeis Mirchel in the Emmental. As a small child he wanted to be a farmer. In 1917 he began his study of agriculture at the Polytechnic in Zurich. He acted in several roles:

    • 1929-1943: Executive Board of the Swiss agricultural experimental station Zurich-Oerlikon
    • 1938-1945: Member in the Federal War Food Office
    • 1942-1949: Council of the Canton of Zurich
    • 1943-1949: Professor of Agronomy at the agricultural department of the ETH

In 1949 he was appointed to the FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization), first to Washington and then in 1951, to Rome, where he presided as director of the Department of Agriculture from 1950 to 1952 and was chief of the technical assistance program. In 1958 he was appointed Deputy Director-General of the FAO. On December 11, 1958 the Federal Assembly elected him to the Federal Council, where he first was the Minister of Justice and Police, later he led the Ministry of the Department of Economic and then was the Foreign Minister by the Political Department. Until the 1965 elections he was a Federal Council.[43]


Rudolf Koblet (1904–1983)

  • Executive Board of the Swiss Federal Agricultural Research Institute Zurich-Oerlikon
  • A polymath of the agricultural crop

On 13 February 1904 Rudolf Koblet was born in Heiterthal, not far from Kollbrunn in Tösstal. He attended the Industrial School in Winterthur and in 1923 began with his studies at the Department of Agriculture of the ETH. In 1926 he graduated with a diploma as an engineer-agronomist. After a stay in France he went to Canada where he acquired, besides the work as "farm help" in various Canadian farms, specialized knowledge, as a volunteer in the Seed Branch in Ottawa, in the field of control seeds. In 1929 he joined the line for seed control in Oerlikon. With his work "On the germination Pinus strobus with particular reference to the origin of the seed," he earned his doctorate in 1932 Dr.sc.techn. ETH. In 1949 he became head of the Department of Agronomy at the ETH.[44]


Rudolf Salzmann (1912–1992)

  • Director of the Swiss Federal Agricultural Research Station for Agronomy Zurich- Reckenholz
  • Planner and builder of the Research Institute Reckenholz

Rudolf Salzmann was born on January 2, 1912 in Bern. In the years 1930 to 1933, he completed his agriculture studies at the ETH. He oversaw the procurement of seed in the war food office under Frederick Traugott elections and then took a slightly later point in agricultural chemistry from the Swiss Federal Institute Liebefeld, where he worked on the agronomic aspects and problems of the institution. In 1944, he was transferred to the agricultural experimental station Oerlikon. His election as successor to Director Koblet took place on November 1, 195, when he took responsibility for both academic work and for the organizational and administrative issues.[45]

References

  1. ^ [vgl. Flyer Agroscope]
  2. ^ [vgl. Agroscope Jahresbericht 2009:4]
  3. ^ Agroscope: Arable crops and pasture systems
  4. ^ Agroscope: Viticulture and oenology
  5. ^ Agroscope: Berries, medicinal plants and greenhouse crops
  6. ^ Agroscope: Plant protection for arable crops, grapevines and horticulture
  7. ^ Agroscope: Plant protection and fruit and vegetable extension
  8. ^ Agroscope: Arable crop plant breeding and genetic resources
  9. ^ Agroscope: Plant Products, Quality, Safety and Nutrition
  10. ^ Agroscope: Milk and meat production
  11. ^ Agroscope: Milk and meat processing
  12. ^ Agroscope: Safety and quality
  13. ^ Agroscope: National Stud Farm
  14. ^ Agroscope: National Stud Farm
  15. ^ Agroscope: Natural resources and agriculture
  16. ^ Agroscope: Arable crops and pasture systems
  17. ^ Agorscope: Biodiversity and environmental management
  18. ^ Agroscope: Agricultural economics and engineering
  19. ^ Agroscope: AgriMontana
  20. ^ Agroscope: NutriScope
  21. ^ Agroscope: ProfiCrops
  22. ^ [ cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:13-15]
  23. ^ [vgl. Lehmann, Josef 2003:19-23]
  24. ^ [vgl. Lehmann, Josef 2003:27]
  25. ^ [vgl. Lehmann, Josef 2003:29]
  26. ^ [vgl. Popp, Hans 2001:4-5]
  27. ^ [vgl. Popp, Hans 2001:4-5]
  28. ^ [vgl. Popp, Hans 2001:4-5]
  29. ^ [vgl. Sieber, Robert; Rüegg, Max 2002:5]
  30. ^ [vgl. Website Agroscope: Gestüt]
  31. ^ [ cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:37-39]
  32. ^ [ cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:51-52]
  33. ^ [ cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:53]
  34. ^ [ cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:65-66]
  35. ^ [ cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:70-71]
  36. ^ [ cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:83-85]
  37. ^ [ cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:101-102]
  38. ^ [ cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:137-138]
  39. ^ [cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:16-17]
  40. ^ [ cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:24-25]
  41. ^ [ cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:35]
  42. ^ [ cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:48-49]
  43. ^ [ cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:62-63]
  44. ^ [ cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:80-81]
  45. ^ [cite book: Lehmann, Josef 2003:98-99]

Literature

  • Popp, Hans (2001): Entstehung und Entwicklung der landwirtschaftlichen Forschungsanstalten, Bern (www.agroscope.admin.ch/org/00274/01412/index.html?lang=de).
  • Sieber, Robert; Rüegg, Max (2002): 100 Jahre Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Milchwirtschaft. FAM-Information 441, 48 Seiten.
  • Lehmann, Josef (2003): Von der Kontrollstation zum nationalen Zentrum für Agrarökologie: Zur Geschichte der landwirtschaftlichen Forschungsanstalt Zürich-Reckenholz 1878-2003, Zürich.
  • Website Agroscope: Gestüt, Vom Hengstendepot zum Schweizerischen Nationalgestüt, www.agroscope.admin.ch/haras/00403/02167/index.html?lang=de
  • Flyer Agroscope: www.agroscope.admin.ch/org/index.html?lang=de&download=NHzLpZeg7t,lnp6I0NTU042l2Z6ln1acy4Zn4Z2qZpnO2Yuq2Z6gpJCEfX18e2ym162epYbg2c_JjKbNoKSn6A--
  • Bundesamt für Landwirtschaft, Agroscope (Hrsg.) (2009): Agroscope Jahresbericht 2009, Zürich.


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