Israeli-Palestinian conflict in Hebron

Israeli-Palestinian conflict in Hebron

The Israeli-Palestinian conflict in Hebron is a microcosm of the wider Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The conflict in Hebron is being played out in a city of 160,000 Palestinians and a Israeli settler population of 500-800 living in close proximity to each other.

Under the British mandate

From 8 December 1917, during World War I, the British occupied Hebron. The British occupation of Palestine was sanctioned by a League of Nations Mandate.

In the 1929 Hebron massacre, Arab rioters killed 67 Jews and wounded 60, and Jewish homes and synagogues were ransacked; 435 Jews survived by hiding with their Arab neighbours. [ [ Independent] 26 January 2008 "A rough guide to Hebron: The world's strangest guided tour highlights the abuse of Palestinians"] In 1931 under Rabbi Chaim Bagaio 160 Jews returned to Hebron. [Tom Segev (2000) p 347] After further Arab Nationalist strikes, the British Government decided to move all Jews out of Hebron "to prevent another massacre". The Acting Mayor of Hebron was murdered on 13th August 1936 by unknown persons. The sole exception where a Jew remained in Hebron was Ya'akov ben Shalom Ezra, who processed dairy products in the city, and resided in the city on weekdays. [ [ Arutz Sheva] 31 July 2008 "Yossi Ezra's Return To Hebron"] In November 1947, in anticipation of the UN partition vote, the Ezra family closed its shop and left the city. [ [ Haaretz] June 11, 2008 Shragai, Nadav, "And the Loser Rejoiced", ]

Jordanian rule

At the beginning of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Egypt and Jordan took control of Hebron. After the Egyptian forces were defeated by Israeli forces, the city fell exclusively under Jordanian control and later the West Bank was unilaterally incorporated into Jordan.

Israeli rule

After the June 1967 Six Day War Hebron came under Israeli control with the rest of the West Bank.

The vacillations in the Israeli cabinet after the six day war, over annexation and the political realism in wanting to maintain the majority Jewish demographic of Israel left the Israeli leadership in a quandary in ways to deal with the newly occupied territories. [Golda Meir (2007) ISBN 978-1906142131 p. 293] In 1968, a group of Jewish settlers, with the tacit support of Levi Eshkol and Yigal Allon, [Gershom Gorenberg, "The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967-1977," Times Books, Henry Holt & Co., New York 2007 ISBN 978-0-8050-8241-8 pp.137ff.] began to reside in the city, through a government compromise the Jewish presence was moved to the east in the new settlement at Kiryat Arba.cite web| url=| title= "Among The Settlers", by Jeffrey Goldberg ("The New Yorker", May 2004)] Beginning in 1979, some Jewish settlers moved from Kiryat Arba to found the Committee of The Jewish Community of Hebron in the former Jewish neighbourhood near the Abraham Avinu Synagogue, and later to other Hebron neighborhoods including Tel Rumeida.

Jewish settlement after 1967

Following the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel's position was that parts of the West Bank be traded for peace with Jordan. [Chaim Herzog "Heroes of Israel" p.253.] In what was called the Allon Plan, Israel was to annex 45% of the West Bank and Jordan the remainder. ["He [Allon] proposed that Israel annex a strip of land 6-9 miles wide along the Jordan River, most of the sparsely populated Judean desert along the Dead Sea, and a wide swath of land around Greater Jerusalem. The Heart of the West bank - its great Arab cities and most densely populated towns - could be returned to Jordan." Elinor Burkett (2007) Golda Meir; The Iron Lady of the Middle East ISBN 978-1906142131 pp 295-296]

In an interview with the "BBC" on July 12 1967, Former Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion declared that:

" the cause of peace, Israel should take nothing in the conquered territories, with the exception of Hebron, which 'is more Jewish even than Jerusalem'." According to Randolph Churchill, he [Ben-Gurion] argued that "Jerusalem became Jewish three thousand years ago under King David. but Hebron became Jewish four thousand years ago under Abraham and included a number of settlements that were destroyed two days before Israel was established." [Randolph Churchill and Winston S. Churchill, "The Six Day War,"1967 p.199 citing 'The World at One' BBC radio, July 12,1967]

In 1968, a group of Jews led by Rabbi Moshe Levinger rented out the main hotel in Hebron, and then refused to leave. According to the American Jewish historian Ian Lustik:

The government was caught by surprise. Internally divided, depending for its survival on the votes of the National Religious Party, and reluctant to forcibly evacuate the settlers from a city whose Jewish population had been massacred thirty-nine years earlier, the Labor government backed away from its original prohibition against civilian settlement in the area and permitted this group to remain within a military compound. After more than a year and a half of agitation and a bloody Arab attack on the Hebron settlers, the government agreed to allow Levinger's group to establish a town on the outskirts of the city. [Ian S. Lustick, (1988) "For the Land and the Lord: Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel" Council on Foreign Relations, ISBN 0876090366 and ISBN 9780876090367 p 42]

They moved to a nearby abandoned army camp and established the settlement of Kiryat Arba. In 1979, Levinger's wife led 30 Jewish women to take over the former Hadassah Hospital, Daboya Hospital, now Beit Hadassah in central Hebron, founding the Committee of The Jewish Community of Hebron. Before long this received Israeli government approval and a further three Jewish enclaves in the city were established with Israeli army assistance, [Anita Shapira, (2007) "Yigal Allon, Native Son: A Biography" Translated by Evelyn Abel, University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 0812240286 p 315] [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events November 1994 "2 November Speaking in Jerusalem to a young leadership of the United Jewish Appeal, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin said that the Likud government made a major mistake by establishing settlements of 30 to 80 families in areas densely populated by Palestinians. As a result the bulk of the army is stationed in the West Bank for the purpose of protecting Jewish settlers, he concluded. According to Rabin, in order to protect 450 Jewish settlers in Hebron, which has a Palestinian population of 100,000, there was a need for three Israeli army battalions to be there at all times."] and settlers are currently reported to be trying to purchase more homes in the city. [cite news|url=|title=Hebron settlers try to buy more homes|author=Yaakov Katz and Tovah Lazaroff|publisher="The Jerusalem Post"|date=April 14, 2007] [cite news|url=|title=Hebron settlers give up comfort to expand Jewish holdings|author=Tovah Lazaroff|publisher="The Jerusalem Post"|date=April 15, 2007]

The Jewish Sephardic community had been in Hebron continuously for approximately 800 years and the Ashkenazi community had roots there that went back at for about one century.cite book |last=Segev |first=Tom |authorlink=Tom Segev |title=One Palestine, Complete |year=1999 |publisher=Metropolitan Books |isbn=0805048480 |pages=pp. 314-327 ] Jews living in the new settlements and their supporters claim that they are resettling areas where Jews have lived since time immemorial. However, some reports, both foreign and Israeli are sharply critical of the settlers."Boston Globe". [ A top Israeli Says Settlers Incited Riot In Hebron] 2002-7-31. (was [ here] )] "The Scotsman". " [ Settlers’ revenge leaves Hebron bleeding] ", 2002-7-30.]

The sentiments of Jews who fled the 1929 Hebron massacre and their descendants are mixed. Some advocate the continued settlement of Hebron as a way to continue the Jewish heritage in the city, while others suggest that settlers should try to live in peace with the Arabs there, with some even recommending the complete pullout of all settlers in Hebron."The Jerusalem Post". " [ Field News 10/2/2002 Hebron Jews' offspring divided over city's fate] ", 2006-05-16.] Descendants supporting the latter views have met with Palestinian leaders in Hebron."The Philadelphia Inquirer". " [ Hebron descendants decry actions of current settlers They are kin of the Jews ousted in 1929] ", 1997-03-03.] The two most public examples of the descendants' views are the 1997 statement made by an association of some descendants dissociating themselves from the then-current Jewish settlers in Hebron and calling them an obstacle to peace, and the May 15, 2006 letter sent to the Israeli government by other descendants urging the government to continue its support of Jewish settlement in Hebron in their names, and urged it to allow the return of eight Jewish families evacuated the previous January from the homes they set up in empty shops near the Avraham Avinu neighborhood. Beit HaShalom, was established in 2007. [ [ Ha'aretz] 26 September 2007 "Gov't bans Hebron settlers from winterizing controversial house" By Nadav Shargai] [ [] 19 March, 2007 The Jewish Community of Hebron] [ [ Jpost] 17 April 2007 Hebron settlers try to buy more homes By yaakov Katz And Tovah Lazaroff] One of the purchasers is a descendant of Jews who fled Hebron during Arab massacres.Cite news
last = Shragai
first = Nadav
title = 80 years on, massacre victims' kin reclaims Hebron house
work = Haaretz
accessdate = 2008-02-07
date = 2007-12-26
url =

A total of 86 Jewish families now live in Hebron. [ [] ]

Post-Oslo Accord

On 25 February 1994, Israeli physician Baruch Goldstein opened fire on Muslims at prayer in the Ibrahimi Mosque, killing 29, before the survivors overcame and killed him. In the ensuing riots in the West Bank, Jerusalem and Gaza Strip a further 25 Palestinians were killed. [ [ Israeli Ministry of Foreign affairs] Preliminary Report on the Events in Hebron as presented by Commanding Officer of the Central Command General Dani Yatom Before the Diplomatic Corps] [ [ PHRIC: Details of Hebron Massacre] List of victims of the incident and subsequent disturbances] This event was condemned by the Israeli Government. [ [ Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs -- Excerpts from the report of the Commission of Inquiry Into the Massacre at the Tomb of the Patriarchs in Hebron (aka the "Shamgar Report")] ] The extreme right-wing Kach party was banned outright by the Israeli cabinet under 1948 anti-terrorism laws, following the groups support of Golstein's actions. [ [ Key Issues: Protecting Charitable organizations] US Department of the Treasury] [ [ In the Spotlight: Kach and Kahane Chai] Center for Defense Information, 1 October 2002] The 1994 Shamgar Commission of Inquiry concluded that Israeli authorities had consistently failed to investigate or prosecute crimes committed by settlers against Palestinians. It was revealed in that inquiry that the IDF have 2 sets of instructions, one for dealing with settlers and one for dealing with Palestinians. [Brown, Cynthia G. (Human Rights Watch) and Karim, Farhad (Human Rights Watch) (1995) pp 38-39]

The first Temporary International Presence in Hebron (TIPH) mission was established on May 8, 1994 as a UN response to the massacre. However the Palestinian Authority and the Israeli government could not reach an agreement on the extension of the mandate and the observers were therefore withdrawn on August 8, 1994. [ [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events August 1994]

A year later, Hebron's mayor, Mustafa Abdel Nabi, invited the Christian Peacemaker Teams to assist the local Palestinian community in opposition to what they describe as Israeli military occupation, collective punishment, settler harassment, home demolitions and land confiscation. [cite web |url= |title=History/Mission of CPT |work=Christian Peacemaker Teams] [ [ BBC] In pictures: Christian Peacemakers, Hebron. "The members - wearing distinctive red caps - believe that they must devote the same discipline and self-sacrifice to peacemaking and non-violence that armies devote to war."]

The redeployment of Israeli military forces in Hebron in accordance with the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (the Interim Agreement or "Oslo II") of September 1995 was postponed on 28 March 1996. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events March 1996] Since 17 January 1997, following re-negotiation of the Hebron Agreement, the city has been divided into two sectors: H1 and H2. The H1 sector, home to around 120,000 Palestinians, came under the control of the Palestinian Authority, in accordance with Hebron Protocol, shortly afterwards, Israeli and Palestinian joint units began patrolling the sensitive parts of the city. [cite web |url= |title=Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron |date=January 17, 1997 |work=United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine |publisher=Non-UN document.] [!OpenDocument UN Doc] Chronological review of Events January 1997] H2, which was inhabited by around 30,000 Palestinians,cite news |first=Meron |last=Rapoport |title=Ghost town |url= |work=Haaretz |date=November 17, 2005] remained under Israeli military control in order to protect some 500-800 Jewish residents living in the old Jewish quarter, now an enclave near the center of the town. Renovation work that was being carried out on Palestinian homes prior to the Hebron agreement was halted on Israeli military orders. During the years since the outbreak of the Second Intifada, the Palestinian population in H2 has decreased greatly, the drop in large part having been identified with extended curfews and movement restrictions placed on Palestinian residents of the sector by the IDF for security needs, including the closing of Palestinian shops in certain areas. Settler harassment of their Palestinian neighbours in H2 was a reason for several dozen Palestinian families to depart the areas adjacent to the Israeli population. [cite news |title=Israeli NGO issues damning report on situation in Hebron |url= |work=Agence France-Presse |publisher=ReliefWeb |date=August 19, 2003] [cite web |url= |title=Hebron, Area H-2: Settlements Cause Mass Departure of Palestinians |date=August 2003 |work=B'Tselem "In total, 169 families lived on the three streets in September 2000, when the intifada began. Since then, seventy-three families—forty-three percent—have left their homes."] [cite web |url= |title=Palestine Refugees: a challenge for the International Community |date=October 10, 2006 |work=United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East |publisher=ReliefWeb |quote=Settler violence has forced out over half the Palestinian population in some neighborhoods in the downtown area of Hebron. This once bustling community is now eerily deserted, and presents a harrowing existence for those few Palestinians who dare to remain or who are too deep in poverty to move elsewhere.] cite web| url= | title=Ghost Town: Israel's Separation Policy and Forced Eviction of Palestinians from the Center of Hebron |date=May 2007 | work = B'Tselem]

The Hebron Jewish community has been subject to attacks by Palestinian militants since the Oslo agreement, especially during the periods of the Intifadas; which saw 3 fatal stabbings and 9 fatal shootings in between the first and second Intifada (0.9% of all fatalities in Israel and the West Bank) and 17 fatal shooting (9 soldiers and 8 settlers) and 2 fatalities from a bombing during the second Intifada. [cite web|url=|title=Fatal Terrorist Attacks in Israel Since the DOP (Sept 1993)|date=24 September, 2000|accessdate=2007-04-13|publisher=Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs] and thousands of rounds fired on it from the hills above the Abu-Sneina and Harat al-Sheikh neighbourhoods. While the settler compound of Beit haddassah has been used as a firing point to shoot indiscriminately into Palestinian areas. [Center of the Storm: A Case Study of Human Rights Abuses in Hebron District By Human Rights Watch, Peter Bouckaert, Human Rights Watch, Human Rights Watch (Organization), Clarisa Bencomo Published by Human Rights Watch, 2001 ISBN 1564322602 and ISBN 9781564322609 pp 5 & 45-46]

An international civilian observer force, the TIPH was subsequently re-established on 14 May 1996 to help the normalization of the situation and to maintain a buffer between the Palestinian Arab population of the city and the Jews residing in their enclave in the old city during the handing over period to the Palestinian Authority. [ [!OpenDocument UN Doc] Chronological Review of Events May 1996] [ [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events January 1997 "The Palestinian Authority and Israel invited Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey to join the 30-member unarmed Norwegian contingent of the Temporary International Presence in Hebron (TIPH) force already stationed in Hebron".] On February 8, 2006, TIPH temporarily left Hebron after attacks on their headquarters by some Palestinians angered by the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy. TIPH came back to Hebron a few months later.

The city of Hebron has been a major friction point, with Palestinians and Israeli human rights groups accusing the hard-line religious settlers of attacking the Palestinian population with impunity. According to Human Rights Watch, the settler bias of the IDF was confirmed and clarified by Hebron commander Noam Tivon when he stated in an Ha'aretz article:

Let there be no mistake about it. I am not from the UN. I am from the Israeli Defense Force. I did not come here to seek people to drink tea with, but first of all to ensure the security of the Jewish settlers. [Center of the Storm: A Case Study of Human Rights Abuses in Hebron District By Human Rights Watch, Peter Bouckaert, Human Rights Watch, Human Rights Watch (Organization), Clarisa Bencomo Published by Human Rights Watch, 2001 ISBN 1564322602 and ISBN 9781564322609 pp 30-31]

Tivon later suggested that the "Palestinian Authority is encouraging children to participate in clashes with the IDF by offering their families $300 per injury and $2,000 for anyone killed. He also said "the soldiers have acted with the utmost restraint and have not initiated any shooting attacks or violence." [ [ Jerusalem Post] , October 6,2000 "IDF: Palestinians offer $2,000 for 'martyrs'"]

The Islamic movement Hamas won an overwhelming victory in the 2006 elections. [ [ Palestine information centre] Angry Hebronites stone Fatah’s police headquarters, demand release of relatives]

The Israeli NGO Breaking the Silence, composed mostly of former soldiers, has documented abuses committed by Israeli soldiers guarding the Hebron settlers, [ [ Our reign of terror, by the Israeli army] Donald Macintyre, 19 April 2008, The Independent] while Mario Vargas Llosa has written that local Arabs are "subjected to systematic and ferocious harassment by settlers, who stone them, throw rubbish and excrement at their houses, invade and destroy their homes, and attack their children when they return from school, to the absolute indifference of Israeli soldiers who witness these atrocities." [ [ Mario Vargas Llosa: How Arabs have been driven out of Hebron] 19 April 2008, The Independent]

The documentary Welcome to Hebron asserts that settlers often harass the local Palestinian population. [ [ [film] =vaelkommen_till_hebron Welcome to Hebron] Stockholm International Film Festival] [ [ Youtube] 3 1/2 minute clip of Welcome to Hebron] In the film, a former commander of the Israeli army, one of the leading figures in Breaking The Silence, shared his experiences as a soldier in Hebron.

In September and October 2008 reports stated to leak out about the possibility of a transfer of authority for security operations. [ [ Ha'aretz] 7 october 2008 "Settlers to Barak: Don't give PA security control of Hebron" By Nadav Shragai,]

List of incidents of Israeli-Palestinian conflict in Hebron

2 June 1980 Israeli settler group based in Kiryat Arba set a bomb off in Hebron market 11 Palestinians are injured. [ WRMEA] Jewish Settler Terror Groups Have a Long History in Hebron By Steve Sosebee]

July 1983 3 students killed in a raid on the Islamic College in Hebron. [,+but+first+of+all+to+ensure+the+security+of+the+Jewish+settlers.&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=uk&client=firefox-a B'Tselem] "Tacit Consent: Israeli Policy on Law Enforcement toward Settlers in the Occupied Territories" by Rona Dudai] [ [ ha'aretz] 15 March 2008 "Rightist rabbis urge 'measure for measure' revenge on foes"]

On 7 July 1983 The commander of the central region ordered the dismissal of the municipal council of Hebron and of acting mayor Mustafa Natche (the Mayor, Fahd Al Kawasme, having been expelled from the OTP on 2 May 1980) and appointed a Jewish member of the civilian administration to the post of mayor of Hebron municipality. [ [!OpenDocument UN Doc A/41/680] 20 October 1986 Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories] Mustafa Natche was able to re-take his post again in April 1994. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events April 1994]

On September 1988 Zein Moh’d Ghazi Karaki was shot to death. [Zachary Lockman, Joel Beinin (1989) Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising Against Israeli Occupation South End Press, ISBN 0896083632 and ISBN 9780896083639]

On 30 September 1988, Palestinian shoe store owner Kayed Hassan Salah was shot dead and a customer was wounded by Rabbi Moshe Levinger. [ [ WRMEA] Mainstream Media Mideast Slanters April/May 1994, Page 30 Media Watch]

23 March 1993 Israeli settler Yoram Skolnik fired several shots from his Uzi submachine gun and killed Musa Abu Sabha, a Palestinian who lay face down, his hands tied behind him. Abu Sabha had been caught near the "Susia" settlement, south of Hebron, carrying a knife and a grenade, and had stabbed and slightly wounded a settler before he was subdued. [ [!OpenDocument UN Doc] Chronological Review of Events March 2000]

16 September 1993 Palestinians celebrating in support of the Israeli-Palestinian accord in Halhul village came under fire from Israeli troops and as a result, a young Palestinian was injured. [ [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events September 1993]

5 October 1993 Israeli troops shot and injured a Palestinian. [ [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events October 1993] On November 7, 1993, Efraim Ayubi of Kfar Darom, Rabbi Chaim Druckman's personal driver, was shot to death by Palestinian gunmen and the Rabbi wounded near Hebron. HAMAS publicly claimed responsibility for the murder. Settlers then rioted wounding 3 Palestinians. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events November 1993]

14 November Jewish settlers shot and killed a young Palestinian after he stabbed and injured a settler near the Ibrahimi Mosque.

16 November 1993 Jewish settlers overturned market stalls, smashed cars and broke car windshields.

On 3 December 1993 A young Palestinian was shot and injured by Jewish settlers in Hebron. [!OpenDocument UN Doc] Chronological Review of Events Relating to the Question Of Palestine December 1993]

On 5 December 1993 A group of Jewish settlers from Kiryat Arba ambushed and killed a Palestinian resident from Hebron. The killing triggered demonstrations and protests all over the West Bank.

On December 6, 1993 Mordechai Lapid and his son Shalom Lapid, age 19, were shot to death by Palestinian gunmen near Hebron. HAMAS publicly claimed responsibility for the attack.

On 10 December 1993 Three Palestinians, two brothers and a cousin, were assassinated by Jewish settlers while sitting in a parked car near Hebron.

13 January 1994 Three Israeli soldiers were injured after been shot at by Palestinians in an ambush near Hebron. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events Jaunary 1994]

14 January 1994 Israeli troops fired anti-tank rockets into a house near Hebron killing the four Palestinians who were barricaded in the house.

18 January Israeli troops opened fire during clashes with Palestinian demonstrators injuring 9 in Hebron.

2 February 1994 Three Israeli settlers were shot and injured by Palestinian gunmen in an ambush near Hebron. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events February 1994]

On February 17, 1994, Yuval Golan, stabbed on December 29, 1993 by a Palestinian gunman near Adarim in the Hebron area, died of his wounds.

18 February An Israeli settler's car was ambushed by a Hamas unit near Hebron, killing a pregnant Jewish settler.

25 February 1994, The Goldstein attack on Muslims at prayer in the Ibrahimi Mosque, 29 Palestinians killed. 25 more Palestinians killed in the ensuing riots.

7 April 1994 It was claimed that a settler deliberately ran his car into a Palestinian and his 5 year old son. Israeli police said that it was a car accident.

17 May, 1994 Rafael Yairi (Klumfenbert), 36, of Kiryat Arba, and Margalit Ruth Shohat, 48, of Ma'ale Levona, were killed when their car was fired upon by by gunmen in a passing car near Beit Haggai, south of Hebron.

4 June 1994 A home-made grenade was hurled at an Israeli army post injuring 6 Palestinians. The IDF opened fire at stone throwers and injured 8 of them. In a clash following this incident, 4 soldiers and 6 Palestinians were injured. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events June 1994]

17 June 1994 Israeli troops shot and wounded four Palestinians during clashes.

8 July 1994 Drive by shooting of a settler school girl. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events July 1994]

18 July 1994 Israeli troops shot and wounded two Palestinians.

22 July 1994 17 Palestinians were injured in clashes with Israeli troops.

26 August 1994 Israeli troops shot and wounded three Palestinians during a clash at the police square. [ [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events August 1994]

September 1994 Members of the "The Jewish Underground of Revenge" are arrested by the Israeli secret police. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events September 1994]

22 September 1994 Several thousand West Bank Jewish settlers and their supporters from Israel skirmished with Israeli border police for more than four hours before a group of religious Jews were able to brake into the Ibrahimi Mosque, which has been closed for 7 months after the massacre of 29 Muslims in February. At least four people were injured and 20 were arrested.

1 October 1994 Israeli soldiers shot and killed a Palestinian man who stabbed and wounded an Israeli soldier. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events October 1994]

7 October 1994 Razi Haymouni, 23, a Palestinian was shot dead by Israeli border police after he tried to pour acid on two policemen near the Ibrahimi Mosque.

16 October 1994 Israeli troops shot dead Imad al-Adarba, 23 in Hebron.

23 October 1994, Nidal Said al-Tamimi, 22, shot dead after he reportedly tried to stab a soldier. He had been recently released from an Israeli jail. [ [!OpenDocument UN Doc] A/50/170 2 May 1995]

27 November, 1994 Rabbi Amiran Olami, 34, of Otniel was killed and an Israeli policeman wounded near Beit Hagai 10 kms south of Hebron by shots fired from a passing car.

29 November, 1994 Israeli police arrested 10 Jewish settlers as they attempted to invade the Moslem-designated area in the Ibrahimi Mosque. Among those arrested was Yehuda Etzion, who was jailed for attempting to blow up the Dome of the Rock in East Jerusalem in 1984 and was granted amnesty after four years in jail.

15 January 1995 A shoulder-held anti-tank missile (LAW) was fired at a Jewish apartment in Hebron, 10 LAW missiles had been taken from an Israeli Military base on the West Bank. [ [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events January 1995]

14 March 1995 4 home made bombs were found by Israeli police on a road at the northern entrance to Hebron. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events March 1995]

19 March, 1995 Nahum Hoss, 32, of Hebron and Yehuda Fartush, 41, of Kiryat Arba, were killed and 5 settlers wounded when Palestinian gunmen fired on an Egged bus at a crossroads close to the Kiryat Arba settlement near the entrance to Hebron Several settlers then went on a "rampage" in Halhul village, near Hebron, shooting one Palestinian.

17 April 1995 3 Palestinians killed in IDF ambush. [ [ New York Times] April 17, 1995 Israeli Army Kills 3 Palestinians It Says Were En Route to Attack.]

4 June 1995 A 13-year-old Palestinian boy was killed and his eight-year-old brother was wounded in Hebron when an Israeli army bomb exploded near their home. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events June 1995]

29 June 1995 Israeli special forces killed a senior member of Hamas movement in Hebron.

2 July 1995 A 17-year-old Palestinian was killed by an Israeli soldier. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events July 1995]

12 July 1995 Settlers demonstrations against the expansion of self rule in the West Bank led to clashes, Israeli police arrested 38 Israeli settlers who blocked the main road leading from Jerusalem to Hebron in the West Bank. The spokesman of the Council of Jewish settlers in the West Bank, said this was the opening salve in a campaign of civil disobedience by the settlers to prevent the extension of Palestinian self-rule.

8 September 1995 Five armed men in Israeli army uniforms, some of them masked, forced their way into private homes in Halhoul town 5 kilometres North of Hebron and interrogated the residents. During the assault they shot dead a young Palestinian man as his father watched. A Jewish extremist organization claimed responsibility for the attack. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events September 1995]

9 September 1995 Jewish settlers raided a Palestinian girls school and beat the schools headmistress also injured four pupils who had taken part in a street protest.

14 September Hundreds of Palestinians clashed with Israeli troops, a Palestinian girl and a cameraman from the International Network were injured.

On Saturday 30 September 1995 Yigal Amir (Yitzhak Rabin's assassin) was in a group of 20 Israeli who attacked Kathleen Kern and Wendy Lehman of Christian Peacemaker Team on Duboya Street while the women were filming. [ [ Christian Peacemaker Team] Palestine Projects; About CPT Palestine] It was reported that the demonstrators were throwing stones, eggs and smashed the windows of 13 Palestinian cars and 5 houses. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events October 1995]

13 October 1995 The Israeli army closed three offices of the Palestinian Authority in Hebron including the offices of information, municipality and national solidarity, which were located next to Jewish settlers homes in the town.

16 January, 1996 Sgt. Yaniv Shimel and Major Oz Tibon, both of Jerusalem, were killed when Palestinian gunmen fired on their car on the Hebron-Jerusalem road, reportedly in revenge for the assassination of Yehiya Ayyash. [ [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events January 1996]

22 March 1996 The Israeli army arrested three Palestinians from Hebron believed to be involved in the suicide bombings in Israel.

2 April 1996 More than 700 Palestinian marched through the city of Hebron protesting the Israeli closure of the West Bank and Gaza from February.

7 April 1996 Two petrol bombs were thrown at an Israeli bus about 100 meters south of the entrance of Beit Omar near Hebron, injuring five Israelis. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events April 1996]

January 1, 1997 Hebron Market shot up by Israeli settler/soldier Noam Friedman, wounding seven Palestinians. [ [ Israeli MFA] PM Netanyahu Responds Following Shooting at Arabs in Hebron Market] [ [ CNN] Second arrest made in Hebron market shooting]

31 January 1997 Israelis beat a Palestinian youth and detained him while he was trying to force his way into the Ibrahimi mosque. The incident set off further scuffles.

10 March 1997 Israeli soldiers in Hebron beat Palestinians who tried to stop workers from opening a road for Jewish settlers through land claimed by the Palestinians. [!OpenDocument Un Doc] Chronological Review of Events March 1997]

3 weeks of protests throughout the West bank between 21 March and 11 April 1997 as a demonstration against the Israeli settlement construction at Jabal Abu Ghneim (Har Homa), Jerusalem. The protests in Hebron alone led to 2 Dead, Kamal al-Zaro, shot dead at a road block into H2 area and an Israeli settler shot dead Asem Arafeh, 24, a shopkeeper, with 276 injured in the clashes. [ [!OpenDocument UN Doc] Chronological Review of Events April 1997]

Aug. 20, 1998 Rabbi Shlomo Ra'anan, 63, was stabbed to death in the bedroom of his caravan in Hebron

Oct. 26, 1998 Danny Vargas, 29, of Kiryat Arba was shot to death in Hebron.

Jan. 13, 1999 Sergeant Yehoshua Gavriel, 25, of Ashdod, was killed when gunmen opened fire at the Othniel junction near Hebron.

8 August 1999: After a shooting at 2 settlers in Hebron city centre the Hamas military wing, the ‘Iz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades released a statement taking responsibility. [ [ MERIA] Hamas’ Terrorism Strategy: Operational Limitations and Political Constraints By Ely Karmon]

10 February 2000 A Palestinian woman from the West Bank town of Hebron died of a heart attack after Israeli soldiers delayed her transfer to a hospital while they were searching her house. Hebron municipal sources said Fatimah Abu Rmeileh, 62, began feeling ill and her husband asked for an ambulance, while 10 soldiers sealed and searched their house. The Army said it found weapons and anti-Israeli propaganda during routine checks. [ [!OpenDocument UN Doc] Chronological Review of Events February 2000] October 20, 2000 Jordanian citizen Walid J'afreh killed by IDF in Tarqumya, Hebron district [ [ B'Tselem] west Bank Statistics]

On December 22, 2000 Muhammad Najib ‘Abido, killed by gunfire at Beit Hagai, near Hebron.

Feb. 1, 2001 - Dr. Shmuel Gillis, 42, of Karmei Tzur, was killed by Palestinian gunmen who fired at his car near the Aroub refugee camp on the Jerusalem-Hebron highway. [ Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs] - Fatal Terrorist Attacks in Israel Since the Declaration of Principles (September 1993-July 24, 2008)]

Mar. 26, 2001 - Shalhevet Pass, age 10 months, was killed by sniper fire at the entrance to the Avraham Avinu neighborhood in Hebron.cite news |first=Meron |last=Rapoport |title=Ghost town |url= |work=Haaretz |date=November 17, 2005] [ [ Casualties of War] "The Jerusalem Post".] [cite web|url=|title=Victims of Palestinian Violence since September 2000|accessdate=2007-04-13|publisher=Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs] [cite web|url=|title=Major Terrorist Attacks in Israel|accessdate=2007-04-13|publisher=Anti-Defamation League]

On July 19, 2001 Muhammad Helmi a-Tameizi along with Diaa' Marwan a-Tameizi Under 1 year-old and Muhammad Salameh a-Tameizi was shot dead by settlers while driving by Idhna, Hebron district. [ [ B'Tselem] West Bank Statistics]

27 March 2002 Two Temporary International Presence in Hebron observers were killed by Palestinian gunmen in a shooting attack on the road to Hebron, Cengiz Soytunc (Turkish) and Catherine Berruex (Swiss). [ [ Two Norwegian observers killed near Hebron: Israeli TV] , ABC News online, March 27, 2002.] [ [;action=Article.publicShow;ID=1579 Two TIPH members killed near Hebron] , Temporary International Presence in the City of Hebron website, March 27, 2002.]

April 2002 Israeli raid on the West Bank city of Hebron. A least 1 Palestinian was killed early in the raid and then at an Israeli checkpoint 1 Palestinian policeman was killed and 4 others wounded. [ [ BBC News] 25 April 2002 "Violence erupts in Hebron and Gaza"] 14 year old Nivin Jamjum was shot dead on 28 July 2002 in Hebron, when settlers rioted in Hebron. [ [ B'Tselem] West Bank Statistics]

15 November 2002 12 Israelis were killed (Hebron Brigade commander Colonel Dror Weinberg, 8 soldiers and 3 civilians, members of the civil defense unit of Kiryat Arba) in an ambush of Israeli security personnel protecting settlers walking home from Sabbath prayers at the synagogue in the Cave of Machpelah, and of the policemen, security guards and soldiers who rushed to their rescue. [ [ New York Times] 16 November 2002 "12 Israelis Killed in Hebron Ambush Near Prayer Site"] 3 Palestinian gunmen were also killed in the 90 minuet fire fight. [!OpenDocument UN Docs] Chronological Review of Events November 2002]

16 November 2002 Israeli forces re-enter H1 areas carrying out mass arrests (40) and demolishing 4 houses.

28 November 2002 there are conflicting reports about the death of a 4 year old Palestinian child. IDF reports said the child had been hit by splinters from a hand grenade thrown at soldiers by Palestinian youths.

On May 17, 2003 a pregnant Israeli woman and her husband were killed when a suicide bomber detonated himself next to them in a public square in Hebron. Hamas claimed responsibility. [ JVL] ]

On September 9, 2003 Thaer Monsur Noman al-Sayouri, aged 9, was killed by IDF tank fire to his head while in his home during an incursion in Hebron.

September 26, 2003: Eyal Yeberbaum, 27, and 7-month old infant Shaked Avraham were shot dead by a Palestinian who knocked on the door of a home in Negohot, 9 km west of Hebron, during a celebratory Rosh Hashana (Jewish New Year holiday) dinner. Islamic Jihad took responsibility for the attack.

In 2003 a company of Israeli border police was disbanded after an incident gained international notoriety where 2 border policemen beat a Palestinian and threw him from the back of the jeep which was traveling at approximately 80 kmph to celebrate their end of "tour of duty". In 2008 The 4 Israeli border guards involved in the incident were eventually convicted of the offences of falsifying records, robbery, abduction and the killing of Amran Abu Hamatiya. [ [ Ha'aretz] "Two Border policemen convicted of manslaughter in killing of Palestinian teen"] [ [ B'Tselem] 29 April 2008: Policeman sent to prison for killing Palestinian in incident exposed by B'Tselem] [ [ BBC] ]

On March 10, 2004: Thaer Mohammad Harun Eid al-Halika, 15, of Shioukh al-Aroob, near Hebron, killed by IDF gunfire to his back at close range on his way home near Route 60.

April 25, 2004 the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack in which killed Border Policeman Cpl. Yaniv Mashiah, 20, of Jaffa, and where three others were lightly wounded just an hour after the beginning of Memorial Day for Israel's fallen soldiers when shots were fired at their vehicle near Hebron.

On January 6, 2005 Hamzah Abdul-Minem Jaber 9 years old, killed by an IDF jeep on the main road near his home in Hebron.

On February 14, 2005 after being beaten Sabri Fayez Younis al-Rjoub, 17, of Dura, near Hebron was killed by IDF gunfire to his chest, abdomen, pelvis and right leg.

14 January 2006 The TIPH said dozens of Israeli settler youths attacked five of its members, mostly US citizens, near the "Beit Hadassah" settlement. The workers were slightly injured, and two required medical treatment. Police informed the organization that it would be required to leave the area by 22 January, as all Jewish sections of the city would be closed as a military zone. Israeli security forces were able to suspended the military closure on Jewish areas of Hebron, removed roadblocks at the entrances to settlements and eased identity checks when most of the non-residents, who entered Hebron to support the rioting settlers left. [!OpenDocument UN Doc] Chronological Review of Events January 2006]

17 January 2006 Amidst protests against an Israeli order to evict nine Jewish families squatting in an area taken from Palestinians in Hebron after the start of the intifada, Israeli police forcibly removed a handful of settler youths from the squat to try to end days of unrest. Late the previous day, the military had declared the area "a closed military zone" to non-residents.

18 January 2006 Olmert ordered the IDF to immediately remove nine Jewish families (some 50 people) squatting illegally on a Palestinian fruit and vegetable market in Hebron. The decision followed consultations with security officials and the new Foreign Minister, Tzipi Livni, who is also Justice Minister. The settlers have so far rejected the proposal. Five settlers there were arrested by security forces.

19 January 2006 Israeli troops had shot dead a Palestinian teenager near Hebron IDF and witnesses said he was trying to throw a fire bomb at an IDF patrol near one of the settlements.

On January 21, 2007 The Jewish settler Yifat Alkobi pressed her face while repeatedly hissing "sharmuta" – whore – at her married Palestinian neighbour, Abu Ayesha. A Video of Settler abusing Palestinians in Hebron received International media attention and her actions widely condemned. The Yad Vashem Council Chair slammed settlers for abusing Palestinians Yosef (Tommy) Lapid said in a weekly commentary on Israel Radio that the acts of some Hebron settlers reminded him of persecution endured by Jews in his native Yugoslavia on the eve of World War Two.

"It was not crematoria or pogroms that made our life in the Diaspora bitter before they began to kill us, but persecution, harassment, stone-throwing, damage to livelihood, intimidation, spitting and scorn,".... "In the years that preceded the Holocaust,"... "behind shuttered windows hid terrified Jewish women, exactly like the Arab woman of the Abu-Ayesha family in Hebron."

And where, according to testimony given by Taysir Abu Ayesha, Baruch Marzel broke into the house with 10 other settlers in the winter of 2002, beat him and attempted to drag him into the road before he was rescued by his stick-brandishing father. [ [ Ha'aretz] ] [ [ Youtube] ] [ [ Youtube] ]

On June 8, 2007 Hijazi Muhammad Abdul-Aziz Rzaiqat, 17, of Taffouh, near Hebron, shot to death by IDF gunfire to his chest, abdomen, left shoulder and right thigh while hunting birds with a gun. [ B'Tselem] West Bank Statistics]

On July 3, 2007 Ahmad Abdul-Muhsen Abdul-Rahim al-Skafi, 15, of Hebron, killed by IDF gunfire to his head while carrying a toy gun.

In August of 2007 Hillel Weiss, father of Tehila Yahalom, verbally abused Hebron Brigade commander Col. Yehuda Fuchs, while IDF troops evacuated 2 settler families from the Hebron wholesale market. [ [ Jpost] 13 August 2008 "Hillel Weiss indicted for incitement"] [ [,7340,L-3435555,00.html Ynet News] 08.09.07 "Cursing professor to be probed" by Efrat Weiss] Bar-Ilan University, where Weiss is a professor, has publicly distanced itself from his remarks and criticized Weiss. [ [ Arutz Sheva] 13 August 2008 "Prof. Hillel Weiss Indicted for Incitement"]

On May 2, 2008 Khalil Ahmad Mahmoud a-Za'arir was killed after attempting to stab a soldiers at a Hebron checkpoint.

February 13, 2008 the 15 month prison sentence and reduction to the rank of private of Lieutenant Ya'akov Gigi was confirmed for a "wild rampage" in the West Bank where Gigi and five of his soldiers hijacked a Palestinian taxi in July 2007 in the West Bank village of Dahariya, near Hebron. The version of events that Gigi gave was found to be false. First Sergeant Dror, who shot a Palestinian in the neck severely wounding him claims that the way the Palestinian looked at him was enough to classify him as a "suspect" and to justify opening fire. [ [ Ha'aretz] 13 February 2008 "Court okays soldier's 15-month jail term for Hebron rampage" By Yuval Azoulay]

In February 2008 the IDF ordered an orphanage run by the Islamic Charitable Society (ICS), that houses 240 orphans, in Hebron closed, based on the ICS's alleged promotion of terrorism. The ICS disputes these charges. [ [ IPS] ] [ [ Guardian] Thursday May 01 2008 "Hebron Orphanage" by Seth Freedman] [ [ Christian peacemaker teams] 7 July 2008 "Hebron Reflection: The Islamic Charitable Society and the Salvation Army" by Kathleen Kern ]

On 9 July 2008 Avner Inbar, an Israeli, taking a group of South African Human rights activists, that included Zackie Achmat and Edwin Cameronon, on a tour of Hebron reported that the group was verbally abused by settlers. Three Israelis were arrested for disturbing the peace. [ [ Ha’aretz] 9 July 2008, South African rights group says harassed by settlers in Hebron]

al-Ras Mosque, located next to al-Rajabi House settlement became the target of settler attacks during early August 2008 with large quantities of rubbish were placed at the entrance of the Mosque and was again attacked on August 11 2008 when Israeli settlers from the al-Rajabi House settlement attempted to set fire to the mosque. [!OpenDocument UN Doc] Protection of Civilians Weekly Report 6 August - 12 August 2008]

During the second week of August 2008 a total of five civilians – three Palestinians and two foreigners, including two UNRWA staff and one child, were physically assaulted and injured.

On 7 August 2008 Israeli settlers from Giv'at Ha'avot settlement (next to Kiryat Arba) attacked five nearby Palestinian houses with rocks and bottles.

In August 2008 Hebron settlers attacked a group of visiting UK diplomats. [ [ Ha'aretz] 7 August 2008 "British consulate: Settlers attack U.K. diplomats on Hebron tour" By Reuters] Breaking the Silence only take small parties so as not to constitute a "group" as settlers regularly attacked "Breaking the Silence" tours. [ [ Christian peacemaker teams] 15 August 2008 "Hebron: Delegation meets with Breaking the Silence" by Tim Bowman]

ee Also

:Israeli–Palestinian conflict:Violence in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict:Media coverage of the Arab–Israeli conflict

Timeline of violence in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict



*Burkett, Elinor "Golda Meir: The Iron Lady of the Middle East" ISBN 978-1906142131
*Gorenberg, Gershom "The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967-1977", Times Books, Henry Holt & Co., New York 2007 ISBN 978-0-8050-8241-8
*Zachary Lockman, Joel Beinin (1989) Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising Against Israeli Occupation South End Press, ISBN 0896083632 and ISBN 9780896083639
*Brown, Cynthia G. (Human Rights Watch) and Karim, Farhad (Human Rights Watch) (1995) " Playing the "communal Card": Communal Violence and Human Rights" Human Rights Watch, ISBN 1564321525 and ISBN 9781564321527

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