- Amphibious cargo ship
Amphibious cargo ships were
U.S. Navyships designed specifically to carry troops, heavy equipment and supplies in support of amphibious assaults, and to provide naval gunfire supportduring those assaults. They were originally called Attack Cargo Ships and designated AKA. In 1969, they were renamed as Amphibious Cargo Ships and redesignated LKA. A total of 108 of these ships were built between 1943 and 1945—which worked out to an average of one ship every eight days. Six additional AKAs, featuring new and improved designs, were built in later years.
Compared to other cargo ship types, these ships could carry
landing craft, were faster, had more armament, and had larger hatches and booms. Their holds were optimized for combat loading, a method of cargo storage where the items first needed ashore were at the top of the hold, and those needed later were lower down. Because these ships went into forward combat areas, they had Combat Information Centers and significant amounts of equipment for radio communication, neither of which were present in other cargo ships.
s that had previously been designated AK. During the course of the war, 108 such ships were built; many of them were converted from non-military ships, or started out as non-military hulls.
Attack cargo ships played a vital role in the
Pacific War, where many were attacked by kamikazes and other aircraft, and several were torpedoed, but none were sunk or otherwise destroyed. Nine AKA's were present at the surrender ceremony in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945:
After the war, many AKA's were put into the
National Defense Reserve Fleet. Others were converted for uses such as oceanographic surveying, undersea cable laying, and repairing other ships.
Some of the reserve ships were recommissioned for service in the
Korean War, and some stayed in service during the Vietnam War.
Six more amphibious cargo ships, somewhat larger and of improved design, were built between 1954 and 1969.
In 1969, the U.S. Navy redesignated all its AKA "attack" cargo ships as LKA "amphibious" cargo ships. At the same time, the other "A" designations of amphibious ships were changed to similar "L" designations. For example, the all the APAs were redesignated as LPAs.
In the 1960s, both the
United States Navyand the Royal Navydeveloped amphibious transport docks which gradually took on this unique amphibious role and today have assumed it completely. The last amphibious cargo ship in the U. S. Navy, USS "El Paso" (LKA-117), was decommissioned in April, 1994.
* "Andromeda"-class attack cargo ship
* "Arcturus"-class attack cargo ship
* "Artemis"-class attack cargo ship
* "Charleston"-class amphibious cargo ship
* "Tolland"-class attack cargo ship
* List of attack cargo ships of the United States Navy (AKA)
* List of amphibious cargo ships of the United States Navy (LKA)
Attack transport(APA/LPA). Nearly identical ships used to transport troops and landing craft.
* [http://www.navsource.org/archives/10/02/02idx.htm NavSource Online: Attack Cargo Ship (AKA), Amphibious Cargo Ship (LKA)]
* [http://ussrankin.org/id352.htm 51 Years of AKAs]
*Alexander, Joseph H. "Storm Landings: Epic Amphibious Battles in the Central Pacific". 1997. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-032-0
*Crew, Thomas E. "Combat Loaded: Across the Pacific on the USS "Tate. 2007. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 1-58544-556-8
*Friedman, Norman. "U.S. Amphibious Ships and Craft: An Illustrated Design History". 2002. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-250-1
*Lane, Frederic C. "Ships for Victory: A History of Shipbuilding under the U.S. Maritime Commission in World War II". 1951, 2001. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6752-5
*NavSource Online. " [http://www.navsource.org/archives/10/02/02idx.htm Attack Cargo Ship (AKA), Amphibious Cargo Ship (LKA)] "
*North Carolina Shipbuilding Company. "Five Years of North Carolina Shipbuilding". 1946. Wilmington, North Carolina: North Carolina Shipbuilding Company.
*U.S. Naval Historical Center. " [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/index.html Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships] "
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.