- Border Campaign (IRA)
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=IRA Border Campaign
December 12 1956– February 26 1962
place=Mainly Irish Border
casus=IRA desire to create United Ireland
result=IRA campaign fails
combatant1=Irish Republican Army
Royal Ulster Constabulary Ulster Special Constabulary British Army
IRA Army Council Seán Cronin Ruairí Ó Brádaigh
strength1=c.200 IRA volunteers
casualties1=11 IRA volunteers dead
casualties2=6 RUC dead
32 woundedThe Border Campaign (
December 12 1956– February 26 1962) was a campaign of guerrilla warfare(codenamed Operation Harvest) carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) against targets in Northern Ireland, with the aim of overthrowing that state and creating a united Ireland. Popularly referred to as the Border Campaign, it was also referred to as the "Resistance Campaign" by some activists, as found in the IRA statement ending the Campaign in February 1962. [See the statement presented in J. Bowyer Bell, The Secret Army, 1979.] Similarly, Sean Cronin, IRA Chief of Staff at various points during the campaign, titled his account of the 1956-57 period "Resistance - The story of the struggle in British-Occupied Ireland," [Book reprinted in IRIS - The Republican magazine, issue number 20, summer 2007, ISSN 0790-7869] under the pen-name Joe McGarrity. The campaign was a failed attempt to unite Ireland, but for some of its members, the campaign had kept the IRA engaged for another generation. [see Tim Pat Coogan, "Jail journal of a 'last hurrah' republican," The Sunday Business Post Online, January 13, 2008.]
The Border Campaign was the first major military undertaking carried out by the IRA since the 1940s, when the harsh security measures of the
Republic of Irelandand Northern Irelandgovernments had almost destroyed the organisation. In 1939 the IRA had tried a bombing campaign in England to try to force British withdrawal from Northern Ireland. From 1942-1944 it also had an ineffective campaign in Northern Ireland. Internmenton both sides of the border as well as internal feuding and disputes over future policy all but destroyed the organisation. These campaigns were officially called off on March 10, 1945. By 1947, the IRA had only 200 activists according to its own general staff. [Patrick Bishop, Eamonn Mallie, the Provisional IRA, p. 37.]
In principle, the IRA wished to overthrow both "partitionist" states in Ireland, which it deemed to be illegitimate entities, imposed by Britain at the time of the
Anglo-Irish Treatyin 1922. However, in 1948 a General Army Convention issued General Order No. 8 prohibiting "any armed action whatsoever" against the forces of the Republic of Ireland. This amounted to a de facto recognition of the Southern Irish state. A new policy was also introduced ordering IRA volunteers caught with arms in the Republic of Ireland to dump or destroy them, and not to take defensive action. [J. Bowyer Bell, The Secret Army, 1979, p. 266.]
From now on, armed action would be focussed on Northern Ireland, which was still part of the United Kingdom and which was dominated by Protestant unionists. The idea of a campaign launched from the Republic against Northern Ireland, first mooted by
Tom Barryin the 1930s, gained currency within IRA circles as the 1950s went on. [Bowyer Bell, p. 246.] [cite book | last = English | first = Richard | authorlink = Richard English | title = Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA | publisher = Pan Books| date = 2003 | pages = p. 71 | doi = | isbn = 0-330-49388-4] cite book | last = Moloney | first = Ed | authorlink = Ed Moloney | title = A Secret History of the IRA | publisher = Penguin Books| date = 2002 | pages = pp. 49–50 | isbn = 0-141-01041-X] In 1954, after an arms raid at Gough Barracks in Omagh, a speaker at the Wolfe Tonecommemoration at Bodenstownrepeated that IRA policy was directed solely against British forces in Northern Ireland. [cite book | last = Coogan | first = Tim Pat | authorlink = Tim Pat Coogan | title = The IRA | publisher = Fontana Books |date= 1987 | pages = 266 | doi = | isbn = 000636943X]
IRA Chief of Staff
Tony Maganset out to create "a new Army, untarnished by the dissent and scandals of the previous decade," according to J. Bowyer Bell. [J. Bowyer Bell, The Secret Army, 1979, p. 246] The IRA was officially "apolitical," existing only to overthrow the "British-imposed political institutions" in Ireland. However, in practice, the IRA aquired a political wing in Sinn Feinin 1949. At the 1949 IRA Convention, the IRA formally decided to "infiltrate" Sinn Fein, which would become the "civilian wing" of the IRA. [J. Bowyer Bell, The Secret Army, pp. 247-48.]
By the middle of this decade, moreover, the IRA had substantially re-armed. This was achieved by means of arms raids launched between 1951 and 1954, on British military bases in Northern Ireland and England. Arms were taken from
Derry, Omagh, Essex, Berkshireand Armagh. At the latter raid on Gough barracks in Armagh in June 1954, the IRA seized 250 Lee Enfieldrifles, 37 submachine guns, 9 Bren guns and 40 training rifles.
By 1955, splits were occurring in the IRA, as several small groups, impatient for action, launched their own attacks in Northern Ireland. One such activist,
Brendan O'Boyleblew himself up with his own bomb in the summer of that year. Another, Liam Kelly founded a breakaway group Saor Uladh("Free Ulster") and in November 1955, attacked a Royal Ulster Constabularybarracks at Rosleain County Fermanagh. One RUC man was badly injured and a Republican fighter was killed in the incident. In August of the following year, Kelly and another IRA dissident, Joe Christle, burned down some customs posts on the border.
In November 1956, the IRA finally began its own border campaign. They were partly motivated by a desire to prevent any more splits in their organisation. They were also encouraged by the results of the UK general election of 1955, in which two
Sinn Féin(since 1949, the IRA's political wing) candidates were elected in Northern Ireland, with a total of 152,310 votes. This appeared to show that there was a substantial Irish republican support base within Northern Ireland, but as the mainstream Nationalist Party decided not to take part in the election, its supporters had voted for Sinn Féin instead. [MLR Smith. "Fighting for Ireland?" Routledge 1995 p.67. ISBN 0415091616]
Planning the Campaign
The plan for the Border Campaign — codenamed, "Operation Harvest" — was devised by
Seán Cronin. It envisaged the use of guerrilla units called flying columns, initially four units of about 50 men each. They were to operate from within the Republic of Ireland and to attack military and infrastructure targets within Northern Ireland. In addition, another twenty organisers were sent to various locations within Northern Ireland to train new units, gather intelligence and report back to the leadership in Dublin. An IRA document probably seized in Dublin in a raid on Cronin's flat, on January 8, 1957, stated that the aim of the campaign was to:"break down the enemy’s administration in the occupied area until he is forced to withdraw his forces. Our method of doing this is guerrilla warfare within the occupied area and propaganda directed at its inhabitants. In time as we build up our forces, we hope to be in a position to liberate large areas and tie these in with other liberated areas — that is areas where the enemy’s writ no longer runs". The document seized at Cronin's was titled, "General Directive for Guerrilla Campaign. [Bell, The Secret Army, pp. 300-301; Bishop, Mallie, the Provisional IRA, page41 ]
The reference to "liberated areas" shows that IRA leaders had been influenced to some degree by
Maoistguerrilla ideas. For further discussion of IRA military thinking see "The Green Book".
No actions were to take place in
Belfast, the capital and biggest city in Northern Ireland. It was excluded because Paddy Doyle, the Belfast O/C and a member of the Army Council, was arrested and the unit was disorganized. [Bell, The Secret Army, p. 285 and note 17, p. 287-88.] Because of this, IRA actions did not provoke reprisals by loyalists against the Catholic/nationalist population there. This had happened on a large scale in 1920-22, during and after the Irish War of Independence.
The campaign was launched with simultaneous attacks by around 150 IRA members on targets on the Border on the night of
11 December 1956. A BBCrelay transmitter was bombed in Derry, a courthouse was burned in Magherafelt, as was a B-Specialspost near Newryand a half built Army barracks at Enniskillenwas blown up. A raid on Gough barracks in Armagh was beaten off after a brief exchange of fire.
The IRA issued a statement on
12 Decemberannouncing the start of the Campaign, "Spearheaded by Ireland’s freedom fighters, our people have carried the fight to the enemy…Out of this national liberation struggle a new Ireland will emerge, upright and free. In that new Ireland, we shall build a country fit for all our people to live in. That then is our aim: an independent, united, democratic Irish Republic. For this we shall fight until the invader is driven from our soil and victory is ours". [Bishop, Mallie, page 41]
14 December, an IRA column under Seán Garlanddetonated four bombs (one of which blew in the front wall) outside LisnaskeaRUC station before raking it with gunfire. Further attacks on Derrylinand RosleaRUC barracks on the same day were beaten off.
In response, on
21 December 1956, the government of Northern Ireland under Basil Brookeused its Special Powers Actto intern several hundred Republican suspects without trial. This, in time, severely limited the IRA’s capacity to build up units within Northern Ireland.
On the evening of December 30, 1956, an IRA column under Noel Kavanagh attacked the Derrylin RUC barracks again, killing RUC constable John Scally, the first fatality of the campaign. Others involved in that attack included two prominent IRA men, Charlie Murphy and
Ruairí Ó Brádaigh. [Robert White, Ruairi O Bradaigh, p. 61.] . On January 1, 1957, Seán Garland and Dáithí Ó Conaillplanned an attack on the Police station at Brookeborough, but assaulted the wrong building. Two IRA men, Seán Southand Fergal O'Hanlon, were killed in the abortive attack. Garland was seriously wounded in the raid. He and the remainder of the group were pursued back over the border by 400 RUC, B Specialsand British soldiers. [J. Bowyer Bell, The Secret Army, p. 299.]
The funerals of South and O’Hanlon in the Republic produced a strong emotional reaction among the general public there. The two men are still considered martyrs in Irish Republican circles. [Richard English Armed Struggle, 'two newly minted martyrs killed in the assault and subsequently celebrated in balladry and romantic imagination ' p.74] Up to 50,000 people attended their funerals. [Bishop, Mallie, Provisional IRA, p.43]
The year 1957 was the most active year of the IRA's campaign, with 341 incidents recorded. In the summer of 1958, two IRA men (James Crossan and Aloysius Hand) were killed in separate gun battles with the RUC. In November 1957, the IRA suffered its worst loss of life in the period when four of its members died preparing a bomb in a farm house at
Edentubber, County Louth, which exploded prematurely. The civilian owner of the house was also killed. In 1959, only 77 incidents were recorded in the campaign and in 1960, this fell to just 26. Moreover, many of these actions consisted of minor acts of sabotage, for example the cratering of roads.
The final fatality of the conflict came in November 1961, when an RUC officer, William Hunter, was killed in a gun battle with the IRA in south
The Republic’s government, led by
John Costelloof Fine Gael, feared that the IRA’s action would drag it into a diplomatic confrontation with Britain and in January 1957, it used the Offences Against the State Act to arrest most of the IRA’s leadership, including its Chief of Staff, Seán Cronin. Clann na Poblachta(led by former IRA Chief of Staff Seán MacBride) withdrew its occasional support for the government in protest over this policy. In the ensuing Irish general election, 1957, Sinn Féin won four seats and polled 65,640 votes (c. 5% of those cast), while Clann na Poblachta's vote dropped sharply.
The new government, of
Fianna Fáil, led by Éamon de Valeraproved even more hostile to the IRA than its predecessor. In July 1957, after the killing of an RUC man, de Valera introduced wholesale internment without trial for IRA suspects. Then in November 1961 his Minister for Justice, Charles Haugheyestablished military courts which handed down long prison sentences to convicted IRA men. The use of internment on both sides of the Irish border made it even more impossible for the IRA, most of whose leadership was imprisoned, to maintain the momentum of their campaign.
End of the Campaign
By late 1961, the campaign was over. It had cost the lives of eight IRA men, four republican supporters and six RUC members. In addition, 32 RUC members were wounded. A total of 256 Republicans were interned in Northern Ireland in this period and another 150 or so in the Republic. Of those in Northern Ireland, 89 had signed a pledge to renounce violence in return for their freedom.
That the IRA’s campaign had run its course by 1960 is testified by the fact that the Republic of Ireland's government closed the Curragh camp, which housed internees in the South, on March 15, 1959 (judging them to be no further threat). [J.B. Bell, The Secret Army, pp. 325-26.] The Northern Irish government followed suit on the 25 April 1961.
Although it had petered out by the late 1950s, the Campaign was officially called off on
February 26 1962. In a press releaseissued that day, drafted by Ruairí Ó Brádaighwho consulted with several other persons including members of the Army Council, the IRA Army Councilstated:
The statement was released by the Irish Republican Publicity Bureau and signed "J. McGarrity, Secretary." [The United Irishman, March 1962, p. 1; see also Bishop, Mallie, page 45, M.E. Collins, Ireland 1968-1966, page 464, Richard English, Armed Struggle page 75.]
Implicit in the statement was a recognition that the IRA, after a promising start in 1957, had failed to mobilise much popular support behind its campaign.
The Border Campaign was considered a disaster by some IRA members, not least because it enjoyed practically no support from the nationalist population of Northern Ireland. Even before the campaign ended some within the organisation had begun to consider other avenues in pursuit of the organisation's goals. Many of those involved with the Border Campaign felt that their lack of support was due to a failure to address the social and economic issues faced by ordinary people. The early seeds of addressing such issues are found in Sinn Fein election materials in the late 1950s and early 1960s.huh
The larger unionist population in Northern Ireland was further alienated from Irish republicanism by the campaign, and considered that its internment policy had worked. However, the policy was to fail when it was repeated in the 1970s.
Cathal Goulding, who became IRA Chief of Staff in 1962, tried to move the IRA away from pure militarism and towards left wing and ultimately Marxistpolitics. This process ended with the 1969/70 split in the republican movement between the Official IRAand Provisional IRAwings. The Officials, under Goulding wanted to transform the movement into a revolutionary party involved in both parliamentary and street politics, while the Provisionals under Ruairí Ó Brádaigh, wanted to maintain the movement's traditional refusal to engage in parliamentary politcs. More immediately, the Provisional faction wanted to use armed force to defend the Catholic community in Belfast from loyalist attacks in the civil strife that had broken out in Northern Ireland (the start of the " The Troubles"), but it must be noted that the Official IRA, as led by Goulding, also engaged as Belfast defenders. A key difference is that, ultimately, the Provisionals also wanted to re-build the IRA's military capacity to launch a new armed campaign. [J. Bowyer Bell, The Secret Army]
The Officials and Provisionals went their separate ways in 1969. The
Official IRAmaintained armed actions up until 1972, but characterised them as "defensive". Feuds between the two IRAs in the 1970s claimed about twenty lives. The Provisional IRA launched what turned out to be a much more sustained and destructive campaign than the Border Campaign — the Provisional IRA campaign 1969–1997, which was to claim up to 1,800 lives.
* [http://www.anphoblacht.com/news/detail/17159 Article on the campaign] from
* [http://irelandsown.net/bordercamp.html Republican website, "Ireland's Own" article]
* [http://video.google.ca/videoplay?docid=7587777545471213850&q=anamnocht&total=1&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0 "The Patriot Game"] on
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