Fermat primality test

Fermat primality test

The Fermat primality test is a probabilistic test to determine if a number is probably prime.

Concept

Fermat's little theorem states that if "p" is prime and 1 le a < p, then

:a^{p-1} equiv 1 pmod{p}

If we want to test if "p" is prime, then we can pick random "a"'s in the interval and see if the equality holds. If the equality does not hold for a value of "a", then "p" is composite. If the equality does hold for many values of "a", then we can say that "p" is probably prime, or a pseudoprime.

It might be in our tests that we do not pick any value for "a" such that the equality fails. Any "a" such that

:a^{n-1} equiv 1 pmod{n}

when "n" is composite is known as a "Fermat liar". If we do pick an "a" such that

:a^{n-1} otequiv 1 pmod{n}

then "a" is known as a "Fermat witness" for the compositeness of "n".

Algorithm and running time

The algorithm can be written as follows::Inputs: "n": a value to test for primality; "k": a parameter that determines the number of times to test for primality:Output: composite if "n" is composite, otherwise probably prime:repeat "k" times:::pick "a" randomly in the range (1, "n" − 1] ::if "a""n" − 1 mod "n" ≠ 1 then return composite:return probably prime

Using fast algorithms for modular exponentiation, the running time of this algorithm is O("k" × log2"n" × log log "n" × log log log "n"), where "k" is the number of times we test a random "a", and "n" is the value we want to test for primality.

Flaws

There are certain values of "n" known as Carmichael numbers for which all values of "a" for which gcd(a,n)=1 are Fermat liars. Although Carmichael numbers are rare, there are enough of them that Fermat's primality test is often not used in favor of other primality tests such as Miller-Rabin and Solovay-Strassen.

In general, if "n" is not a Carmichael number then at least half of all

:ain(mathbb{Z}/nmathbb{Z})^*

are Fermat witnesses. For proof of this, let "a" be a Fermat witness and "a"1, "a"2, ..., "a""s" be Fermat liars. Then

:(acdot a_i)^{n-1} equiv a^{n-1}cdot a_i^{n-1} equiv a^{n-1} otequiv 1pmod{n}

and so all "a" &times; "a"i for "i" = 1, 2, ..., "s" are Fermat witnesses.

Usage

The encryption program PGP uses this primality test in its algorithms. The chance of PGP generating a Carmichael number is less than 1 in 1050, which is more than adequate for practical purposes.

References

* Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, and Clifford Stein. "Introduction to Algorithms", Second Edition. MIT Press and McGraw-Hill, 2001. ISBN 0-262-03293-7. Pages 889&ndash;890 of section 31.8, Primality testing.


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