Bid‘ah

Bid‘ah

In Islam, bid‘ah (ArB|بدعة) is any type of innovation. Though innovations in worldly matters are acceptable to an extent, innovation within the religion is seen as a sin in Islam, as the prophet of Islam Muhammad stated as such:“Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours [i.e., Islam] that is not a part of it, will have it rejected.” [Sahih al-Bukhari 2550] [Sahih Muslim 1718] In addition, the Qur'an (which Muslims believe is the word of God) states:

" ..This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion." [Surah al-Ma'idah 5:3]
Similar statements are found in other verses of the Qur'an and other Hadith as well.

Definition

The Sharia definition of bid'ah is: "A newly invented way [beliefs or action] in the religion, in imitation of the Sharia (prescribed Law), by which nearness to Allaah is sought, [but] not being supported by any authentic proof - neither in its foundations, nor in the manner in which it is performed [Imaam ash-Shaatibee, al-I'tisaam (1/37)]

According to Sunni Islam

Islamic scholars have divided bid'ah into two types: innovations in worldly matters and innovations in religious matters. ["Al-Qawaa'id wal-Usool al-Jaami'ah wal-Furooq wat-Taqaaseem al-Badee'ah an-Naafi'ah" by Abd ar-Rahman ibn Naasir as-Sa'di]

In worldly matters

Muslim scholars have divided bid'ah in worldly matters into three types.
#Innovations that are purely good - these are permissible under Islamic law. This can include anything from inventions such as watches to customs and culture, given they don't violate the Sharia.
#Innovations that are purely evil - these are forbidden under Islamic law. Examples of this type of bid'ah include musical instruments. [Fat-hul Baari by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (vol.2, p. 443)] [ [http://almuttaqoon.com/index.php?showtopic=973 Al Muttaqoon -> The Ruling on Music and Singing ] ]
#Innovations that contain both evil and good - this is the majority of worldly matters. Under Islamic law, if they are used for good, then they are permissible; otherwise they are forbidden. This can also include both technological inventions as well as culture and habits.Fact|date=May 2008

In religious matters

Religious innovation means inventing a new way of worshipping Allah that was not originally included in the message that Islamic tradition claims was revealed to Muhammad.There is much criticism of bid'ah in the Qur'an and Sunnah, according to Sunni Islam, with Muhammad, his companions, and predecessors all complaining about innovation - particularly the four Imams (Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man, Malik ibn Anas, Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i, and Ahmad ibn Hanbal).Muhammad said:

Whoever innovates or accommodates an innovator then upon him is the curse of Allaah, His Angels and the whole of mankind. [al-Bukhaaree (12/41) and Muslim (9/140)]

`Abd Allah ibn `Umar said: "Every innovation is misguidance, even if the people see it as something good [Abu Shaamah (no. 39)] ."

Imaam ash-Shaatibee mentions [al-I'tisaam (1/40-45)] : Ibn Wahb said: From Ibn 'Abbaas, that he said regarding the saying of Allah: On the Day (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) when some faces will become white and some faces will become black [Aali Imraan, 3:106] , "The faces of Ahl us-Sunnah will become white and the faces of Ahl ul-Bid'ah will become black". Ibn 'Abbaas also said: "Indeed the most detestable of things to Allaah are the innovations [al-Bayhaqee in as-Sunan al-Kubraa (4/316)] ".

Sufyaan ath-Thowree mentions: "Innovation is more beloved to Iblees than sin, since a sin may be repented from but innovation is not repented from [al-Laalikaa'ee - Sharh Usool I'tiqaad Ahlis-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah (no. 238)] " and "Whoever listens to an innovator has left the protection of Allaah and is entrusted with the innovation [Abu Nu'aym in al-Hilyah (7/26) and Ibn Battah (no.444)] ".

Al-Fudayl bin 'Iyaad mentions: "I met the best of people, all of them people of the Sunnah and they used to forbid from accompanying the people of innovation [al-Laalikaa'ee - Sharh Usool I'tiqaad Ahlis-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah (no.267)] ".

Hasan al-Basri mentions: "Do not sit with the people of innovation and desires, nor argue with them, nor listen to them [Sunan ad-Daarimee (1/121)] ".

Ibraaheem ibn Maysarah mentions: "Whoever honours an innovator has aided in the destruction of Islaam [al-Laalikaa'ee - Sharh Usool I'tiqaad Ahlis-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah (1/139)] ".

Imaam al-Barbahaaree mentions: "The innovators are like scorpions. They bury their heads and bodies in the sand and leave their tails out. When they get the chance they sting; the same with the innovators who conceal themselves amongst the people, when they are able, they do what they desire". [Tabaqaatul-Hanaabilah - Volume 2, Page 44]

Abu Haatim said: "A sign of the people of innovation is their battling against the people of Narrations [Sharh Usool I'tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah - al-Laalikaa'ee - Volume 1, Page 179] ".

Abu 'Uthmaan as-Saaboonee said: "The signs of the people of innovation are clear and obvious. The most apparent of their signs is their severe enmity for those who carry the reports of the Prophet [Abu 'Uthmaan as-Saaboonee, The 'Aqeedah of the (Pious) Predecessors - Page 101] ".

The late Shaikh Muhammad Uthaimeen, a prominent modern day scholar of Islam, wrote: "And there is no such thing in Islaam as bid’ah hasanah (good innovation)." [ [http://almuttaqoon.com/index.php?showtopic=451 Al Muttaqoon -> Question And Answers On Bid’ah (Innovation) ] ]

When a religious innovation is committed, it is generally felt that the innovator is assuming that the Sunnah is not good enough, that he must resort to something "better." Even though this statement would be an admission of disbelief [ [http://www.al-ibaanah.com/cms/pdf_files/33.pdf Microsoft Word - Explanation of The Nullifiers of Islaam.doc ] ] - there are some innovations that contain shirk and there are some which allow someone to remain a Muslim, while his action is rejected (regardless of any sincerity it might have had) [ [http://www.islamqa.com/index.php?ref=60219&ln=eng&txt=bid'ah Islam Question and Answer - Does a good intention intercede for one? ] ] .

According to Shi'a Islam

According to Shi'a beliefs the definition of bid'ah is anything that is introduced to Islam as either being fard, mustahabb, makruh or haram and/or that contradicts the Quran or hadith.Any new good practice that is practiced that does not contradict the Quran or hadith is permissible. However, it is not permissible to say that a new good practice (that does not contradict the Quran or hadith) is obligatory or highly recommended.

For example, one may introduce establishing the tradition of celebrating Muhammad's birthday through recommended acts such as fasting or giving alms. If someone performs the tradition with the intention of recommendation or obligation, the tradition becomes bid'ah.

The Shia regard some practices that Sunnis deem Islamic (such as Tarawih prayers in congregation and abrogation of Nikah Mut‘ah) to be bid'ah. Both of these are considered to be examples of bid'ahs of the second Sunni Caliph Umar ibn Khattab.

As a general rule in Shi'a belief, anything is permissible except whatever is prohibited through divine revelation such as the Quran or hadith. [ [http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/bidah/en/chap2.php Answering-Ansar.org :: Bidah (Innovation) ] ]

References

External links

* [http://www.spubs.com/sps/sp.cfm?secID=BDH&loadpage=displaysection.cfm The Perfection of the Sharia and an Exposition of the Reprehensible Innovations That Have Crept Into Islam]
* [http://www.spubs.com/sps/sp.cfm?subsecID=BDH02&articleID=BDH020003&pfriend= Innovation in Light of the Perfection of the Shari'ah]
* [http://www.al-ibaanah.com/cms/pdf_files/13.pdf= Condemning the Practices of those who Claim Sufism]
* [http://muslimways.com/library/guard-your-faith/bid-ah/shaykh-uthaymeen-on-innovations.html Shaykh ‘Uthaymeen on innovations]

upporting view

* [http://www.minhajuk.org/artikelen.php?parent_id=1143424320 The Concept of Bid'ah] By Dr. Zahid Iqbal
* [http://www.abc.se/~m9783/n/sdb_e.html Bid’ah: a Detailed Explanation from Living Islam]
* [http://www.masud.co.uk/ISLAM/nuh/bida.htm The Concept of Bid'a] by Nuh Ha Mim Keller

hi'a view

* [http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/bidah/en/chap1.php Introduction to Bid'ah from Answering Ansar]
* [http://answering-ansar.org/answers/bidah/bidah.pdf Detailed Explanation of the Shi'a view on Bid'ah]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • bid — 1 / bid/ vb bid, bid·ding vt: to offer (a price) for payment or acceptance vi: to make a bid: state what one will pay or take in payment a contractor bidding for a job bid·der n bid 2 …   Law dictionary

  • bid — bid1 [bid] vt. BADE, bidden, bidding; for vt. 3, 6, 8 & for vi., the pt. & pp. are always bid, bade or bid, bid [ME bidden, to ask, plead, pray < OE biddan < IE base * bheidh , to urge, compel; meaning and form merged with ME beden, to… …   English World dictionary

  • Bid — (b[i^]d), v. t. [imp. {Bade} (b[a^]d), {Bid}, (Obs.) {Bad}; p. p. {Bidden}, {Bid}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Bidding}.] [OE. bidden, prop to ask, beg, AS. biddan; akin to OS. biddian, Icel. bi[eth]ja, OHG. bittan, G. bitten, to pray, ask, request, and E.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Bid — (b[i^]d), v. t. [imp. {Bade} (b[a^]d), {Bid}, (Obs.) {Bad}; p. p. {Bidden}, {Bid}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Bidding}.] [OE. bidden, prop to ask, beg, AS. biddan; akin to OS. biddian, Icel. bi[eth]ja, OHG. bittan, G. bitten, to pray, ask, request, and E.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Bid — (b[i^]d), v. t. [imp. {Bade} (b[a^]d), {Bid}, (Obs.) {Bad}; p. p. {Bidden}, {Bid}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Bidding}.] [OE. bidden, prop to ask, beg, AS. biddan; akin to OS. biddian, Icel. bi[eth]ja, OHG. bittan, G. bitten, to pray, ask, request, and E.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Bid'a — Bidʿa ‏ بدعة‎ bid a, DMG bidʿa bedeutet „Neuerung“, „Ketzerei“, „ketzerische Lehre“ in der islamischen Theologie und Jurisprudenz und steht somit im Widerspruch zur Sunna. Grundsätzlich ist jede Neuerung zunächst verwerflich, wenn sie nicht im… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bidʿa — ‏ بدعة‎ bid a, DMG bidʿa bedeutet „Neuerung“ in der islamischen Theologie und Jurisprudenz und steht somit im Widerspruch zur Sunna. Grundsätzlich ist jede Neuerung zunächst verwerflich, wenn sie nicht im Einklang mit dem Koran und der Sunna …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • bid — Ⅰ. bid [1] ► VERB (bidding; past and past part. bid) 1) offer (a certain price) for something, especially at an auction. 2) (bid for) (of a contractor) tender for (work). 3) (bid for) make an effort to obtain or achiev …   English terms dictionary

  • Bid — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. {{{image}}}   Sigles d une seule lettre   Sigles de deux lettres > Sigles de trois lettres …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Bid'a — Bid ah Religion religions abrahamiques : judaïsme · christianisme · islam C …   Wikipédia en Français

  • bid — [n1] offering of money or services advance, amount, declaration, feeler, hit, invitation, offer, pass, price, proffer, proposal, proposition, request, submission, suggestion, sum, summons, tender; concepts 67,330 bid [n2] endeavor attempt, crack …   New thesaurus

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”