Paracanonical texts (Theravada Buddhism)

Paracanonical texts (Theravada Buddhism)

The term "paracanonical texts" is used by Western scholars to refer to various texts on the fringes of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism (cf. Apocrypha), most often to refer to the following texts sometimes regarded as included in the Pali Canon's Khuddaka Nikaya:

* Suttasamgaha (abbrev. "Suttas"; "Sutta Compendium")
* Nettipakarana (abbrev. "Nett"; "Book of Guidance")
* Petakopadesa (abbrev. "PeIAST|ṭ"; "Instruction on the Tipitaka")
* Milindapañha (abbrev. "Mil"; "Questions of Milinda")

The Suttasamgaha includes selected texts primarily from the Pali Canon. The Nettipakarana and the Petakopadesa are introductions to the teachings of Buddhism; these books present methods of interpretation that lead to the knowledge of the good law ("saddhamma"). Milindapañhā, written in the style of the Pali suttas, contains a dialogue between the Indo-Greek king Menander (in Pāli, Milinda) and the Thera Nāgasena, which throws a flood of light on certain important points of Buddhism.

The term is also sometimes applied to the Patimokkha, which is not in the Canon as such, though a commentary on it is, in which much of the text is embedded.

Other terms with similar meanings include "semi-canonical" and "quasi-canonical".

History

The Suttasamgaha is believed to have been composed in Anurādhapura, Sri Lanka. [Malalasekera (1937-38), entry for "Suttasangaha," retrieved 2008-07-11 from "What the Buddha said in plain English!" at http://what-buddha-said.net/library/DPPN/s/suttasangaha.htm.]

In Burma, presumably sometime after the closing of the Abhidhamma Pitaka (ca. 200 CE), the paracanonical texts were added to the Khuddaka Nikaya . [Hinüber (2000), pp. 73 §151, 76 §156 ff.]

The Suttasamgaha was included in the 1888 Burmese PiIAST|ṭakat samuiIAST|ṅ but excluded from the 1956 Burmese ChaIAST|ṭṭasaIAST|ṅgāyana edition possibly due to the Suttasamgaha's inclusion of material from the post-canonical Pali commentaries. [Hinüber (2000), pp. 3-4 §4, 76 §157.] The Burmese Fifth Council inscriptions of the Canon include the same three works. [Bollée in "Pratidanam" (Kuiper Festshcrift), pub Mouton, the Hague/Paris, 1968] The Burmese Phayre manuscript of the Canon, dated 1841/2, includes the Netti. ["JPTS", 1882, page 61]

The Nettipakarana, Petakopadesa and Milindapañha appear in the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Burmese Tipitaka, while the Nettipakarana and the Petakopadesa appear in the Sinhalese printed edition. The head of the Burmese sangha two centuries ago rearded at least the Netti and Petakopadesa as canonical. ["JPTS", volume XXVIII, pages 61f] A modern Burmese teacher has described them as post-canonical. [Rewata Dhamma, "The Buddha and His Disciples", Dhamma-Talaka Pubns, Birmingham, 2001, page 89]

Nettipakarana

The Nettipakarana (Pāli: -pakarana: The Guide), Nettippakarana or just Netti is a Buddhist scripture, sometimes included in the Khuddaka Nikaya of Theravada Buddhism's Pāli Canon.

Transation: "The Guide", tr Nanamoli, 1962, Pali Text Society, Bristol.

The nature of the Netti is a matter of some disagreement among scholars. The translator, supported by Professor George Bond of Northwestern University, holds that it is a guide to help those who already understand the teaching present it to others. However, A. K. Warder, Professor Emeritus of Sanskrit at the University of Toronto, disagrees, maintaining that it covers all aspects of interpretation, not just this.

The Netti itself says that the methods were taught by the Buddha's disciple Kaccana (also Katyayana or Kaccayana), and the colophon says he composed the book, that it was approved by the Buddha and that it was recited at the First Council. Scholars do not take this literally, but the translator admits the methods may go back to him. The translator holds that the book is a revised edition of the Petakopadesa, though this has been questioned by Professor von Hinüber. Scholars generally date it somewhere around the beginning of the common era.

The Nettipakarana presents methods of interpretation, as explained by Dhammapala, means exposition of that which leads to the knowledge of the good law. It is a Pāli work on textual and exegetical methodology. It has some similarity with the Jñānaprasthāna śāstra because they were composed with an idea to serve the same purpose. Like yāska's Nirukta to the Vedas, it has the same relation to the Pāli canon. According to Mrs. Rhys Davids, the Nettipakarana is an earlier work than the Patthana of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. It is also called the Nettigandha or the Netti.

Petakopadesa

The Petakopadesa (petakopadesa: "Pitaka-Disclosure") is a Buddhist scripture, sometimes included in the Pāli Canon of Theravada Buddhism.

Translation: "Pitaka-Disclosure", tr Nanamoli, 1964, Pali Text Society, Bristol.

The nature of this book is a matter of some disagreement among scholars. The translator, supported by Professor George Bond of Northwestern University, holds it is a guide to those who understand the teaching in presenting it to others. However, A. K. Warder, Professor Emeritus of Sanskrit in the University of Toronto, maintains that it covers all aspects of interpretation, not just that.

According to the chapter colophons, the book was composed by the Buddha's disciple Kaccana (or Kaccayana). Scholars do not take this literally, though the translator mentions that the methods may go back to him. Scholars tend to give dates around the beginning of the common era.

The text of the book as handed down in manuscript is very corrupt. This book was regarded as canonical by the head of the Burmese sangha about two centuries ago. It is included in the inscriptions of the Canon approved by the Burmese Fifth Council and in the printed edition of the Sixth Council text.

The Petakopadesa deals with the textual and the exegetical methodology. It is nothing but a different manipulation of the subject-matter discussed in the Nettipakarana. In some places there are quotations from the Tipitaka. B.C. Law says, “its importance lies also in the fact that in places it has quoted the Pāli canonical passages mentioning the sources by such names as Samyuttaka (Samyutta Nikāya) and Ekuttaraka (Ekuttara or Anguttara Nikāya)”. The Petakopadesa describes the cattāri ariyasaccāni or the Four Noble Truths as the central theme or the essence of Buddhism.Fact|date=July 2008

Milindapañhā

The Milindapanha (also -pañha or -pañhā) is a Buddhist scripture, sometimes included in the Pāli Canon of Theravada Buddhism as a book of the Khuddaka Nikaya. It is in the form of a dialogue between King Menander I (or Milinda) of Bactria, who reigned in the second century BCE, and a monk named Nagasena, not independently known.

Rhys Davids says it is the greatest work of classical Indian prose, though Moritz Winternit says this is true only of the earlier parts, it being generally accepted by scholar that the work is composite, with additions made over some time. In support of this, it is noted that the Chinese versions of the work are substantially shorter. The book is included in the inscriptions of the Canon approved by the Burmese Fifth Council and the printed edition of the Sixth Council textThe Milindapañhā. This work is much revered throughout and is one of the most popular and authoritative works of Pāli Buddhism.

What is most interesting about the Milindapañhā is that it is the product of the encounter of two great civilizations - Hellenistic Greece and Buddhist India - and is thus of continuing relevance as the wisdom of the East meets the modern Western world. King Milinda poses questions about dilemmas raised by Buddhist philosophy that we might ask today. And Nāgasena's responses are full of wisdom, wit, and helpful analogies.

See also

* Tipitaka
* Khuddaka Nikaya

Notes

Sources

* Hinüber, Oskar von (1996; pbk. ed. 2000). "A Handbook of Pāli Literature". Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-014992-3.
* Malalasekera, G.P. (1937-38). "Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names ". Pali Text Society. Retrieved 2008-07-11 from "What the Buddha said in plain English!" at http://what-buddha-said.net/library/DPPN/index_dict.ppn.htm.


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