Betts v. Brady

Betts v. Brady

Infobox SCOTUS case
Litigants=Betts v. Brady
ArgueDateA=April 13
ArgueDateB=14
ArgueYear=1942
DecideDate=June 1
DecideYear=1942
FullName=Vanover v. Black
Citation=62 S. Ct. 1252; 86 L. Ed. 1595; 1942 U.S. LEXIS 489
USVol=316
USPage=455
Prior=None
Subsequent=Gideon v. Wainwright
Holding=Due process of law demands that where a man is tried for robbery, Maryland does not have to furnish counsel to an indigent defendant.
SCOTUS=1941-1942
Majority=Roberts
JoinMajority=Stone, Reed, Frankfurter, Byrnes, Jackson
Dissent=Black
JoinDissent=Douglas, Murphy
LawsApplied=U.S. Const. amends. VI, XIV
Overruled="Gideon v. Wainwright"

"Betts v. Brady", 316 U.S. 455 (1942), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that denied counsel to indigent defendants when prosecuted by a state. It was overruled by "Gideon v. Wainwright".

Facts

In its decision in "Johnson v. Zerbst", the Supreme Court had held that defendants in federal courts had a right to counsel guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment. In "Powell v. Alabama", the Court had held that state defendants in capital cases were entitled to counsel, even when they could not afford it; however, the right to an attorney in trials in the states was not yet obligatory in all cases as it was in federal courts under "Johnson v. Zerbst". In "Betts v. Brady", Betts was indicted for robbery and upon his request for counsel, the trial judge refused, forcing Betts to represent himself. He was convicted of robbery, a conviction he eventually appealed to the Supreme Court on the basis that he was being held unlawfully because he had been denied counsel.

Procedure

He filed writ of habeas corpus at the Circuit Court for Washington County, Maryland claiming he had been denied counsel and then filed a writ to Court of Appeals of Maryland. His petitions were all denied and he finally filed for certiorari to the Supreme Court.

Issue

In a six to three decision, the Court found that Betts did not have the right to be appointed counsel with Justice Hugo Black emphatically dissenting. In the majority opinion, Justice Owen Roberts said for the Court,

"The Fourteenth Amendment prohibits the conviction and incarceration of one whose trial is offensive to the common and fundamental ideas of fairness and right, and while want of counsel in a particular case may result in a conviction lacking in such fundamental fairness, we cannot say that the amendment embodies an inexorable command that no trial for any offense, or in any court, can be fairly conducted and justice accorded a defendant who is not represented by counsel."

In this selection from the majority opinion and throughout the rest of the opinion, Roberts continually makes the point that not all defendants in all cases will need the assistance of counsel in order to receive a fair trial with due process. Roberts appears to be of the opinion that, while counsel may be necessary to receive a fair trial in some cases, it is not in all cases. However, in his dissent, Black wrote,

"A practice cannot be reconciled with ‘common and fundamental ideas of fairness and right,’ which subjects innocent men to increased dangers of conviction merely because of their poverty. Whether a man is innocent cannot be determined from a trial in which, as here, denial of counsel has made it impossible to conclude, with any satisfactory degree of certainty, that the defendant's case was adequately presented."

Black said basically in his dissent that the denial of counsel based on financial stability makes it so that those in poverty have an increased chance of conviction, which is not equal protection of the laws under the Fourteenth Amendment. During his dissent, Black cited also "Johnson v. Zerbst", making the point that had the proceedings of Betts’s case been held in federal court, his petition for counsel to be appointed to him would have been accepted and counsel would have been appointed. Black argued that because this right was guaranteed in federal courts, the Fourteenth Amendment should make the right obligatory upon the states; however, the majority disagreed. Black argued also that a man of even average intelligence could not possibly be expected to represent himself without any training in such matters as the law.

ee also

* List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 316

External links


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