- Histomonas meleagridis
color = khaki
name = "Histomonas meleagridis"
domain = Eukaryota
classis = Parabasalia
genus = "
species = "H. meleagridis"
binomial = "Histomonas meleagridis"
binomial_authority = (Smith, 1895)
"Histomonas meleagridis" is species of parasitic
protozoan that infects chickens, turkeys, peafowl, quailand pheasants, causing blackhead disease, infectious enterohepatitis, or histomoniasis. "H. meleagridis" can infect many birds but it is most deadly in turkeys. Etiology
"H. meleagridis" is most often transmitted in embryonated eggs of "
Heterakis gallinarum", a cecal nematode, but sometimes it is transmitted directly by contact with infected birds. " H. gallinarum" larvae are found inside three species of earthworms, and it is through eating the earthworms that most birds get infected. The earthworm eats infected nematode eggs, which can remain dormant in the soil for years. After a few days of ingestion, "Histomonads" are released from the "Heterakis" nematode larvae in the ceca, and begin to replicate rapidly in the cecal tissues. They migrate to the submucosaand muscularismucosae and cause severe necrosis. The parasites then move to the liver, through the vascular systemor through the peritoneal cavity. There they cause more nercotic lesions. Histomonads interact with other gut organisms, such as bacteriaand coccidia, and depend on these for full virulence.
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